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SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.


Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions.
test questions
1. What are the causes of acute obstruction of the respiratory tract and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid.
2. What is called asthma? What are the types of asthma?
3. Bronchial asthma. Etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, first aid.
4. Cardiac asthma. Etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, first aid.
5. What are the causes of laryngeal stenosis and indications for a tracheostomy.
Lecture notes
Any pathology at any level of the respiratory tract can cause respiratory failure up to respiratory arrest.
The main causes of respiratory failure
Violation of patency of the upper respiratory tract (feeling of suffocation):
- tongue retraction;
- foreign bodies at the level of the pharynx, in the trachea or bronchi;
- aspiration of the contents of the stomach;
- laryngospasm;
- swelling in the glottis;
- injuries or tumors.
Chest injuries:
- fractures of several ribs;
- intense pneumothorax;
- hemothorax.

Respiratory lesions:
- intoxication (for example, barbiturates, cigarette smoke, etc.);
- increased intracranial pressure (cerebral edema, cerebral hemorrhage, tumors);
- meningoencephalitis;
- head injuries.
Lung lesions:
- pneumonia;
- asthmatic status;
- pulmonary edema;
- pulmonary embolism;
- bruised lungs.
Neurogenic causes:
- Brown-Secar syndrome (transverse damage to the spinal cord);
- myasthenia gravis.
Clinical signs of acute respiratory failure:
- shortness of breath;
- paradoxical breathing;
- cyanosis;
- confusion and loss of consciousness;
- pulse (full ^ small);
- unstable blood pressure (T-I);
- change in the partial pressure of blood gases - P02 I, PC02 T.
Respiratory arrest
Lack of respiratory movements, lack of air flow, cyanosis, coma, cardiac arrest no later than after 10 minutes.
The most common causes of acute respiratory failure are:
- a foreign body;
- stenosis of the larynx (krupp);
- bronchial asthma;
- cardiac asthma;
- Quincke's edema.
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SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.

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  2. LESSON 5 First aid after heat, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assisting in the violation of cerebral circulation.
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