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SESSION 10 First aid in acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.


Many antidotes of this group have now lost their practical importance in connection with a change in the range of chemicals that cause poisoning. The use of these antidotes involves the simultaneous use of methods of accelerated evacuation of “bound” poisons from the stomach and intestines when washing through a probe. Activated carbon is used as a non-specific sorbent.
2. Antidotes that carry out a specific physico-chemical interaction with a toxic substance in the humoral environment of the body (parenteral chemical antidotes): thiol compounds (unitiol, mekapid) - for poisoning by heavy metals and arsenic, and helleobrazovatel (EDTA salts, tetacin) - for poisoning lead, cobalt, cadmium.
• Biochemical antidotes
They provide an advantageous change in the metabolism of toxic substances in the body or the direction of biochemical reactions in which they participate, without affecting the physicochemical state of the toxic substance itself: cholinesterase reactants (oximes) - in case of poisoning with organophosphorus substances; methylene blue - with poisoning by methemoglobin formers; ethyl alcohol - with methyl alcohol and ethylene glycol poisoning; nalorphine - for poisoning with opium drugs, antioxidants - for poisoning with carbon tetrachloride.
• Pharmacological antidotes
They provide a therapeutic effect due to pharmacological antagonism, acting on the same functional systems of the body as toxic substances. In clinical toxicology, the pharmacological antagonism between atropine and acetylcholine is most widely used in poisoning with FOV, between proserin and pilacorpine, potassium chloride and cardiac glycosides. However, this antagonism is usually incomplete and drugs should be used in doses exceeding the concentration of this toxic substance in the body.
Chemical, biochemical and pharmacological antidotes are usually combined by one name - specific antidote therapy.
Essential drugs for specific (antidote) treatment of acute toxicity poisoning
Types of Toxic Substances Name of antidote
Methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol Ethyl alcohol (inside 30% solution, 5% w / w)
Hydrocyanic acid (cyanides) Amyl nitrite, 1% sodium nitride solution
Organophosphorus insecticides (kalbofos, chlorophos, metaphos) 0.1% solution of atropine sulfate, 15% solution of dipyroxime, 10% solution of diethixime
Cardiac Glycosides, Clonidine 0.1% atropine sulfate solution
Isoniazid, Phthivazide, PASK 5% solution of vitamin B6
Carbon monoxide Hyperbaric oxygenation
Mushroom Venom Toadstool Lipoic acid (20-30 mg / kg per day), activated carbon 10 g orally
Methemoglobin formers (aniline, nitrites, nitrates) Methylene blue 1% solution
Opium preparations (morphine, promedol, codeine) 0.5% rnalorphine
Acids Sodium bicarbonate 4% solution
Compounds of heavy metals and arsenic (mercury, lead, copper) 30% sodium thiosulfate solution, 5% unitiol solution
Heparin 1% solution of protamine sulfate
Bites of snakes, insects Specific antitoxic serum
Nonspecific sorbent of medicines, plant poisons Activated carbon 10 g inside
Amitriptyline, atropine, diphenhydramine 0.1% physiostigmine solution



• Antitoxic immunotherapy
It is most widely used for the treatment of poisoning by animal poisons in the bites of snakes and insects in the form of antitoxic serum (anti-snake, anti-Karakurt). In recent years, monovalent antidigoxin serum has been used for digoxin poisoning. A common disadvantage of antitoxic immunotherapy is its low effectiveness in late use (3-4 hours after poisoning) and the possibility of anaphylaxis in patients.
For more information on the use of antidotes, see further in the "characteristic of drugs used for poisoning."
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SESSION 10 First aid in acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.

  1. LESSON 5 First aid after heat, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assisting in the violation of cerebral circulation.
    Purpose: To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (heat stroke, sunstroke), in cases of cerebrovascular accident and decreased vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
  2. LESSON 16 First aid for burns, frostbite, general cooling. The composition of the first aid kit, the appointment of its main components. Care for the seriously ill and its hygiene.
    Purpose: To teach students to determine the degree of burns and frostbite, to effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students should get practical skills for caring for seriously ill patients, be able to compose a first-aid kit for first aid and know the purpose of its main components. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 15-16. 2. The definition of "burn".
  3. SESSION 9 First aid for febrile illnesses. Thermometry technique. Emergency care for infectious diseases, their prevention. Patient care (gastric lavage, enemas). Curation of patients.
    Purpose: To teach students the diffdiagnosis of febrile conditions and the rules of first aid. To familiarize with the main infectious diseases and measures for their prevention. To teach practical skills in caring for the sick and the basics of supervision. Test questions 1. What is called fever? The clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the method of thermometry.
  4. First aid for hiccups
    Hiccup - an involuntary, usually stereotypically repeated breath, accompanied by a peculiar sound, due to the clonic contraction of the diaphragm (can be single or within hours, weeks). In healthy people, the cause of hiccups is the ingestion of dry food. With pathology, hiccups can be a symptom of a tumor, aortic aneurysm, and enlarged lymph nodes. More common in patients
  5. First aid for diarrhea
    Diarrhea (diarrhea) - rapid or single bowel movement with the release of liquid feces. The reason is often infectious diseases, toxic changes, pancreatitis, kidneys, etc. The frequency and nature of the stool: - nocturnal diarrhea - always organic (that is, a disease); - morning - functional. • First aid: 1. 0.1% 0.3 ml s / c of atropine sulfate. 2. T. Bakerbon
  6. LESSON 6 First aid for allergic reactions. Anaphylactic shock. Quincke's edema. Hives. Drug allergy.
    Objective: To teach students the clinical symptoms of acute allergic reactions and the rules of first aid for such patients. Test questions 1. What types of allergic reactions do you know? 2. Anaphylactic shock: clinic, first aid. 3. Urticaria: clinic, first aid. 4. Quincke's edema: clinic, first aid. 5. Define the term “drug allergy”. Abstract
  7. First aid for vomiting
    Vomiting is a symptom of many diseases and conditions (gastrointestinal tract, brain and its membranes, kidneys, toxicosis of pregnant women, eye diseases, vestibular apparatus, diabetes mellitus, infections, fever). Vomiting can occur as a result of hypersensitivity to drugs, when taking incompatible drugs, an overdose of medications. Vomiting is a complex reflex act associated with
  8. LESSON 13 First aid for injuries. Closed soft tissue damage. Traumatic brain injuries. Damage to the chest. Transport immobilization for injuries.
    Purpose: To teach students the differentiological diagnosis of various traumatic conditions, the rules of first aid to the victim. Test questions 1. Injury. Definition Classification of injuries. 2. Closed soft tissue damage. Injury. First aid. 3. Stretching. Complaints First aid. 4. The gap. Complaints First aid. 5. The syndrome of prolonged crushing. Pathogenesis. The clinical picture.
  9. LESSON 4 First aid after drowning, electric trauma, lightning strike. The practice of caring for the sick (setting cans and mustard plasters).
    Purpose: To check students' knowledge on topics 1-3 (conducting final test work). To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (drowning, lightning, electric shock). Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 1-3. 2. What are the features of first aid for
  10. LESSON 8 First-aid treatment for pain: pain in the abdomen, in the lumbar region. Diagnosis of the syndrome of "acute abdomen."
    Objective: To teach students to identify the symptoms of "acute abdomen" and provide first aid to such patients. To acquaint students with the main diseases in emergency surgical practice, which are accompanied by the development of the acute stomach syndrome. Test questions 1. What is characteristic of acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs? What groups are they divided into? What do they understand
  11. First aid for acute poisoning
    Poisoning is a painful condition caused by the introduction of toxic substances into the body. Poisoning should be suspected in those cases when a completely healthy person suddenly feels bad immediately or shortly after eating or drinking, taking medicine, as well as cleaning clothes, utensils and plumbing with various chemicals, treating the premises with substances that destroy insects or
  12. LESSON 18 A test lesson on the course "First Aid".
    Purpose: To check the level of knowledge received by students in the course "First Aid". Plan of a test lesson 1. Control of lecture notes. 2. Control lecture notes. 3. Protection of the course history of the disease. 4. Computer testing of the level of theoretical training. 5. Monitoring the level of acquired practical skills in first aid and patient care (based on
  13. LESSON 11 Desmurgy. The rules for applying bandage dressings, dressings. First aid for dislocations and fractures. Transport immobilization. The rules for applying tires.
    Objective: To teach students how to perform dressings, apply dressings to any part of the body, identify clinical symptoms of dislocations and fractures, and carry out transport immobilization of the victim. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 7-10. 2. Desmurgy. Rules for applying a soft bandage bandage. 3. What bandage headbands do you know. Show them
  14. First aid for injuries. Basic concepts of emergency care and requirements
    The recovery of health, and sometimes the preservation of life, can largely depend on the timely provision of first aid. "Emergency medical care" is a broad concept and includes the elimination or attenuation of exposure to harmful factors that aggravate the development of the disease, and measures to restore the health of the victim. Emergency medical care in the military
  15. First aid for food poisoning
    Food poisoning occurs with the use of poisonous mushrooms (pale grebe, fly agaric, satanic mushroom); poisonous plants (belladonna, nightshade, henbane, wormwood, milestone, poppy, horsetail); berries; nuts overwintered in the field of potatoes, grain, etc .; food containing poisons that got into it from the soil (pesticides, fertilizers) or dishes (lead, copper, zinc, etc.). Symptoms of acute gastritis: pain in
  16. LESSON 15 First aid after bleeding. Rules for stopping external bleeding. Technique for performing anterior nasal tamponade. Blood transfusion. Patient care (technique for performing intradermal and intramuscular injections).
    Objective: To teach students to identify symptoms of internal bleeding, to determine the amount of blood loss, to determine the blood group and Rh factor, to master various methods of stopping external bleeding, to perform intravenous, sc, intramuscular injections (from patient care skills). Test questions 1. Bleeding. Definition Classification of bleeding. 2. Signs of arterial, capillary,
  17. LESSON 12 Aseptic and antiseptic. Wounds: types of wounds, examination of the wounded, first aid. Suppuration of wounds. Acute and chronic surgical infection. Specific wound infection.
    Purpose: To teach students to provide first aid at wounds, to identify symptoms of suppuration of wounds and specific wound infections, to prevent the development of surgical infections, observing the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. Test questions 1. Definition of antiseptics. Types of antiseptics. 2. Chemical antiseptics (groups of halogens, oxidizing agents, acids, alkalis, heavy metals, ethyl
  18. SESSION 7 The first pre-medical care for pain. Chest pains. Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Headache. Toothache.
    Objective: To study the pathophysiology of pain and the general principles of analgesia. To teach students to identify symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 4-6. 2. Pathogenesis of pain. 3. What diseases can lead to headaches? 4. What diseases
  19. SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. What are the causes of acute obstruction of the respiratory tract and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid. 2.
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