Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Diagnosis by portrait
Adenoids are located next to the palatine tonsils. Round, divided by a deep vertical cleft into halves, each of which is scored with furrows for another 2-3 slices, the nasopharyngeal tonsil seemed to the doctors of Ancient Greece very similar to iron, which is why it was so called.
Subsequently, doctors found that adenoids suspended from the arch or upper part of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx consist of lymphoid tissue. Together with the palatine, lingual and laryngeal tonsils, they form a kind of closed line of defense against infection - the so-called lymphoid ring of Pirogov, an outpost of the immune system on the periphery of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It is no coincidence that this protective cordon bears the name of the great Russian anatomist and surgeon. It is Pirogov who is his discoverer.
In some people, adenoids are characterized by excessive “zeal”: they grow, gradually dropping down like a slowly unfolding curtain, and obstruct the back openings of the nose, making nasal breathing difficult and forcing to open your mouth. This is not only ugly, but also extremely harmful to health. In this case, they must be removed as soon as possible to avoid complications. A person’s nose works like an air conditioner: it warms cold air, cools hot, moisturizes dry, and simultaneously cleans it of dust. If this living air conditioner removes adenoids, breathing through the mouth leads to a sharp weakening of the protective forces that protect the nasopharynx and respiratory tract from infection. Owners of overgrown adenoids with many years of experience even change facial features, so that the diagnosis becomes clear to the lay person too.
The poet Ilya Selvinsky easily set it ... according to one of the sculptural images of Venus.
Immunology - a science that studies the body's defenses - is in a stage of rapid development.
As new facts accumulate in this complex area, humanity will be protected from many diseases that have not yet been adequately studied. Scientists are looking for ways to extend the life of the immune system, as its fading is associated with the onset of old age.
But one simple way to maintain the morale of immunity has been known since ancient times. His name is laughter. I.P. Pavlov called laughter charging from the subcortex, mobilizing the body's defenses to fight against infectious and other diseases. And scientific studies of recent years have shown that laughter over children's leprosy has the greatest healing effect. Norwegian doctors, along with artists, even created a series of funny cartoons on this topic that show patients with reduced immunity.
Questions for self-control:
1. In your opinion, what system of organs is affected by hardening?
2. What organs enter the immune system ?:
3. How does a foreign body recognize the immune system?
4. What is the difference between B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes?
5. What should be done if you decide to temper with water procedures?
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Diagnosis by portrait
- INTRODUCTION TO NOSOLOGY. TEACHING ABOUT DIAGNOSIS. PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION OF CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS. REASONS AND CATEGORIES OF DIAGNOSIS DIVERSION. The concept of iatrogenism
The main task of studying a particular pathological anatomy is the knowledge of the structural and functional foundations of diseases. Millennial experience in the struggle of mankind with diseases and the generalization of this experience resulted in the creation of a very capacious science - nosology - the doctrine of diseases (from the Greek. Nosos - disease and logos - teaching). Nosology includes the biological and medical foundations of diseases, as well as questions about their cause.
- STRUCTURE OF THE CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS, RULES FOR COMPARISON OF DIAGNOSIS
Clinical and pathoanatomical diagnoses are the stages of a single diagnostic process, although during a stay in a hospital, the lifetime clinical diagnosis of the disease can change (for example, a patient was treated for a long time for liver cirrhosis and died of myocardial infarction). Therefore, when formulating a final clinical diagnosis (ZKD), it is necessary to isolate the disease that caused
- Shalyga I.F., Martemyanova L.A., Turchenko S.Yu. Postmortem diagnosis. Diagnosis discrepancies and their analysis, 2012
- PRESENTATION OF DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
The process of recognizing features of the state of an object is called diagnostics. In medicine, such an object is a person. The main task of diagnosis is to identify deviations from the average normal indicators. In medicine, diagnostic tasks are reduced to recognition of pathological processes, congenital malformations and their consequences. It is important not only to detect deviations, but also
- Psychological portraits of old age
It just so happened that, speaking of changes in the personality of old people, negative, negative characteristics are most often called, from which such a psychological “portrait” could be obtained. Decrease in self-esteem, self-doubt, dissatisfaction with oneself; fear of loneliness, helplessness, impoverishment, death; sullenness, irritability, pessimism; decline in interest in the new - from here
- Stage 3. Drawing up your own psychological portrait
Students are then encouraged to characterize themselves using the same set of qualities. The instruction is as follows: “Rank as follows. First, choose the quality that, in your opinion, is most characteristic of you. Put the number “1” next to this quality. Next, select from the remaining qualities the most characteristic quality for you and mark it with the number “2”, etc.
- Picture 1: “who and what” - portrait
Problems such as “who and what” are associated with objects in the world around us, all that we find and process using the path to see “whom and what”. These are people, things, formulated ideas, cars, etc. Here are just a few examples of problems like “who and what”: I work in the marketing department. We think that we were able to identify the best market segment for our new service, but we are not completely sure of this.
- Portrait of "authority" among military servicemen (%)
o great physical strength - 15 o military service for more than a year - 15 o many high-ranking friends - 13 o many fellow countrymen - 12 o the position of junior commander .. - 9 o kindness, willingness to help - 9 o knows a lot and knows how to tell - 8 o excellent in military
- Psychoanalytic portrait of a man
At the beginning of this chapter, we noted that each approach to personality carries a particular philosophy of human nature. How free or determined are we? Good, neutral or evil? Permanent or changeable? Active or passive? What is mental health made up of? Describing Freud's theory, we have already pointed out many of his views on these issues. Freud is often compared to Copernicus and
- Diagnosis. Diagnosis structure
The diagnosis (from the Greek. Diagnosis - “recognition”) - a medical opinion on the nature of the disease and the condition of the patient, expressed in accepted medical terminology and based on a comprehensive systematic study of the patient. In medicine, there are 4 main types of diagnoses: clinical, pathological, forensic and epidemiological. Construction of a clinical and pathoanatomical
- Behavioral portrait of human behavior
Like the psychoanalytic approach, the behaviorist approach to personality is full of determinism. However, unlike the psychoanalytic approach, it pays very little attention to the biological determinants of behavior; it focuses solely on the determinants of the environment. He was also greatly influenced by Darwin's ideas. Just as evolution through natural selection forms in species adaptation to
- Stage 2. Compilation of psychological portraits of the “good father” and “ideal man”
Students carry out the work of compiling psychological portraits of the “ideal man” and the “good father”. They are offered instructions: “Rank the personality traits suggested below that characterize the“ ideal man ”. Rank as follows. First, choose the quality that, in your opinion, is necessary for the “ideal man” to the greatest extent. Put
- Stage 4. Comparison of portraits drawn up and discussion of the results.
For girls, the comparison of these series is carried out by calculating Spearman's rank correlation between the following indicators: • results of the ranking of images “ideal woman” and “good mother”; • results of ranking their own qualities and the image of a “good mother”; • The results of ranking their own qualities and the image of the “ideal woman”. As a result, we get the indicators:
- Discrepancies in diagnoses. Definition Types of diagnosis discrepancies
It is necessary to dwell on such a concept as a discrepancy of diagnoses, which can be revealed by comparing the clinical and pathological diagnosis. In each medical institution, a comparison of clinical and pathological diagnoses is mandatory. This allows you to evaluate the quality of diagnosis in clinical and outpatient departments, regardless of the opinion and influence of medical
- Portrait of a chronic patient, bespectacled or unsuccessful
It is better to be a jerk, but alive, healthy and happy than a wise guy, but unhappy, sick and a little dead! (This aphorism was invented by Sam!) What type of patients do you consider yourself to be a smart guy or moron? If you are morons, then you should have recovered a long time ago. So, you are very smart, educated suicides. But if you still decided to create spring in your whole body,
- Diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
When making a diagnosis take into account general data on the sanitary - zoohygienic conditions of young growth and the maintenance and feeding of mothers. Pay attention to the behavior of the animal in the room, while walking on its general condition, take into account clinical signs and pathological changes. X-ray examination finds various degrees of pulmonary dimming
- Russian army in the wars of the XX century: historical and psychological portrait
Russian army in the wars of the XX century: historical and psychological
- Stage 1. Compilation of psychological portraits of the “good mother” and “ideal woman”
The teacher gives students basic theoretical information regarding the topic of the lesson. Students are then asked to complete the following task: “Rank the personality traits below to characterize the“ ideal woman ”. Rank as follows. First, choose the quality that, in your opinion, most characterizes the ideal woman.
- Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
Recognition is based on leading clinical symptoms (fever, lymphadenopathy, enlarged liver and spleen, changes in peripheral blood). Hematological examination is of great importance. An increase in the number of lymphocytes (over 15% compared with the age norm) and the appearance of atypical mononuclear cells (over 10% of all white blood cells) are characteristic. However should not be overestimated