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Health risk factors. Hypodynamia, its effect on the body
The physical health of a person depends on:
• biological factors (heredity, variability);
• a complex set of social conditions (lifestyle, environmental factors, nutrition, etc.)
• Some of these factors worsen health, cause illness and shorten life; others, on the contrary, contribute to the strengthening and restoration of health.
• The concept of risk factors is firmly rooted in modern science.
• Risk factors - proven or suspected factors of the external and internal environment of the body, behavioral factors predisposing to any disease. It should be borne in mind that they are not the direct cause of a particular disease, but contribute to an increase in the likelihood of its occurrence and development, its progression and adverse outcome.
• It can be:
• biological factors (weighted heredity, malformations)
• socio-economic factors
• environmental factors (environmental pollution, adverse climatic and geographical conditions);
• lack of hygiene skills;
• violation of sleep patterns, training, work and rest;
• bad habits;
• dysfunctional psychological climate in the team, family;
• insufficient motor activity (hypokinesia), etc.
• Currently, the most significant and common risk factor is hypokinesia (Greek hypo-lower; kinesis-movement), a frequent companion of people with intellectual labor.
• The human body is created for movement (the musculoskeletal system makes up about 80% of the body weight, up to 80-90% of the brain structures to one degree or another are related to the function of movement). In the process of the formation of man as a species, he had to move a lot in order to provide himself with the minimum conditions for survival. This dependence of the preservation of life on physical activity is fixed in the human genetic code, therefore, the need for movement has not decreased today, despite the changing living conditions. But the achievements of civilization led to a sharp decrease in the motor activity of modern man - hypokinesia.
• Distinguish hypokinesia:
• physiological - with developmental abnormalities, the presence of motor inferiority;
• household - due to getting used to a sedentary lifestyle, neglect of physical culture;
• professional as a consequence of limiting the volume of movements due to production needs;
• clinical - for diseases requiring a long bed rest;
• school - in case of incorrect organization of the educational process, overloading with educational activities and ignoring physical education;
• climatogeographic - under adverse climatic conditions that limit motor activity;
• experimental - artificially created during biomedical research.
• However, regardless of the type of hypokinesia, it causes a whole range of changes in the functioning of the body, which is commonly referred to as physical inactivity
• Hypodynamia (Greek hypo-pod, lower; dynamis-strength) - impaired body functions while limiting motor activity.
• According to the WHO conclusion, inactivity occurs in adults with sedentary work (at least 5 hours a day) and inadequate (less than 10 hours per week) physical activity outside working hours (active leisure, walking, including work and back, physical exercises, physical labor in the country, bicycle, etc.). In schoolchildren and students, physical inactivity occurs in the absence of extracurricular, extra-university sports or other types of motor activity.
• Numerous clinical and experimental studies have established that with physical inactivity
• the volume of muscle mass is reduced (atrophy of muscles, including cardiac already in 17-35 years old - “the heart of an active loafer,” according to the American scientist V. Raab), muscle tone, and their performance are reduced;
• bone mass and density decreases, the release of minerals (including calcium) from them into the blood increases, so the bones become more fragile, and due to an increase in calcium in the blood, a tendency to formation of kidney stones appears;
• the elasticity of tendons and ligaments decreases, the range of motion in the joints decreases, the coordination of movements worsens;
• all types of metabolism in the body are rebuilt, including fat, which contributes to the development of excess weight and obesity; in addition, the level of cholesterol and lipoproteins in the blood rises, and therefore atherosclerosis develops faster (a disease that is in the first place among the causes of death of people);
• blood pressure rises, which contributes to the development of hypertension, increases the load on the heart;
• the intensity of blood formation decreases (first of all, the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin, the total amount of protein in the blood);
• the functioning of the respiratory system deteriorates, the VC, the reserves of inhalation and exhalation decrease, which leads to insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues, colds often occur;
• digestion is disturbed, a tendency to constipation appears, caries and periodontosis often develop;
• immunity decreases (the amount of gamma globulins in the blood decreases), changes occur in the body's thermoregulation with a shift towards heat transfer;
• the final link of the stress reaction is turned off - movement, so stress hormones accumulate in the body and the state of mental stress builds up, which naturally leads to the transition of stress into distress and the development of the so-called civilization diseases (coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer, diabetes, neurosis, mental disorders and etc.);
• functional activity of the central nervous system and endocrine glands decreases (due to a decrease in the flow of tonic central nervous impulses from receptors of muscles, ligaments and tendons);
• there are changes in the mental sphere: logical thinking worsens, memory weakens, irritability, poor mood, anxiety, insomnia appear, mental performance decreases, fatigue develops, etc.
• In this situation, the only way out is the purposeful work of the person himself to reduce risk factors and strengthen health protection factors.
• Recommended literature on the topic discussed in the lecture:
1. Amosov N.M. Thoughts on health. - M, 1987.
2. Apanasenko G.L., Popova L.A. Medical Valeology. - Kyiv, ”Health”, 1998
3. Brekhman I.I. Introduction to valeology - the science of health. L., 1987.
4. Weiner E.N. Valueology: Textbook for high schools - M .: Flint: Science, 2002. - p. 3- 81, 111-174
5. Valueology: Nav. A compilation for students of mortgages to bless: / Edited by V.I. Bobritsky (Part 1). - Poltava: “SkyTech”, 2000. - pp. 3-66, 94-136.
6. Garbuzov V.I. Man, life, health: ancient and new canons of medicine. - SPb., 1995.
7. Griban V.G. Valeologiya: Navalnyposibnik. - K .: Center for Naval Literature, 2005, p. 6 - 48.
8. Kolbanov V.V. Valeology. SPb, 1998.
9. Markov V.V. Fundamentals of a healthy lifestyle and disease prevention: Textbook. allowance for students. higher ped textbook. institutions. - M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2001. - pp. 139-162.
10. Medical and biological foundations of valeology. Navalny companion for students of other major mortgages / Pid ed. P.D. Plakhtіya.-Kam'yanets-Podilsky, 2000.
• Having worked through a lecture and recommended literature, a student should be able to:
11. Give a definition of valeology.
12. Name the defining signs of valeology as an independent science.
13. Describe the relationship of valeology with other sciences.
14. To characterize the main directions (branches) of valeology.
15. Explain the need to create a school of valueology.
16. Name the basic state of man, give their definition.
17. Formulate the concept of a healthy lifestyle, list its components.
18. To characterize physical health as the basis of the pyramidal system of human organization.
19. Name the factors that determine physical health.
20. List the basic principles of the formation of physical health.
21. Describe the main risk factors for health.
22. Explain the meaning of the terms "hypokinesia" and "physical inactivity".
23. Describe changes in the human body with insufficient motor activity.
• Questions submitted for independent study:
24. The history of the development of the doctrine of health.
• Recommended reading:
25. Apanasenko G.L., Popova L.A. Medical Valeology. - Kyiv, ”Health”, 1998
26. Valeology, (part 1), edited by V.I. Bobritsky. - Poltava: “SkyTech”, 2000. - p. 3-66.
27. Garbuzov V.I. Man, life, health: ancient and new canons of medicine. - SPb., 1995.
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