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Research and evaluation of the state and functional capabilities of the cardiovascular system
Purpose of work: to assess the state of the functional capabilities of the cardiovascular system of the body and to identify the level of its tolerance to stress (acceptable without harm to health); master the skills of determining the functional capabilities of the cardiovascular system using functional tests.
1. Examine the state of the cardiovascular system and its adaptability to physical activity. For this:
1.1. Perform a Martine test (test with 20 squats), detect a change in heart rate and blood pressure under the influence of physical activity and evaluate the results.
2. Determine the effect of the cardiovascular system on the physical performance of the body, for which:
2.1. Perform a Ruthier-Dickson test, Harvard step test and determine their indices. Based on the data received, make a conclusion about the physical performance of your body.
3. Examine the reaction of your body to a change in body position. For what:
3.1 Perform an orthostatic test and evaluate it.
4. Given the results obtained by measuring, determine the level of adaptive capabilities of the body and the functionality of the circulatory system. Assess the data received.
Guidelines for implementation
1. Perform laboratory work "Research and assessment of the state of the cardiovascular system"
To study the state of the cardiovascular system and evaluate its functionality, perform functional tests:
1.1. Test Martine (test with 20 squats)
Working process. Count your heart rate at rest and measure your blood pressure. Enter the measurement results in table 5. Without removing the cuff of the tonometer, perform 20 deep squats in 30 seconds (legs shoulder-width apart, squat, stretch your arms forward, standing up - lower). Then, sitting, count the pulse for 10 seconds, count it for a minute, measure blood pressure and determine the percentage of increased heart rate and increased blood pressure after exercise from a resting level. Next, count the pulse for 10 seconds at the end of the first, second, third, fourth minutes of the recovery period. Simultaneously with the calculation of the pulse, measure blood pressure in the recovery period at the first, second and third minutes after exercise. Enter the results in table 11, evaluate the state of the cardiovascular system and its adaptability to physical activity.
MARTINE TEST RESULTS
Surname, name, patronymic of the subject ______________________________
The state of the cardiovascular system is assessed as excellent when the pulse rate is up to 25% of the initial level, as good - by 25-49%, satisfactory - by 50-75% and unsatisfactory - by more than 75% from the initial level. If the recovery of heart rate occurs at the end of the first minute of rest, the adaptability to the load is excellent, on the second - good, on the third - satisfactory. If the pulse is not restored within three minutes, the adaptability to the load is assessed as unsatisfactory. With a normal reaction to physical activity, diabetes increases by 25–30 mmHg. Art., diastolic or remains at the same level, or slightly decreases (by 5-10 mm RT. Art.). Normally, the restoration of blood pressure lasts 3 to 4 minutes, and with good adaptability to the load even faster.
2. Perform laboratory work “Determining the effect of the cardiovascular system on the physical performance of the body”
To determine the body’s ability to work on endurance and quantify it (in terms of indices), perform the Rufier-Dickson test and the Harvard step test.
2.1. Ruthier-Dickson test
Working process. In the supine position for 5 minutes, count the pulse for 15 seconds (HR1); then do 30 squats for 45 seconds. After completing the load, again take the supine position and count the number of pulse beats in 15 seconds (heart rate 2), and then in the last 15 seconds of the first minute of the recovery period (heart rate 3). All the results obtained are entered in table 12.
CHANGE THE FREQUENCY OF HEART REDUCTIONS
UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL LOAD
Assess the performance of the heart by the formula:
When the index value is less than 3 - high performance; 4-6 is good; 7-9 - average; 10-14 - satisfactory; 15 and above is bad.
2.2. Determining the Harvard Step Test Index (IGST)
Working process. Climb up to a state of fatigue by climbing a step 50 cm high, with a frequency of 30 lifts in 1 minute. Perform each lift under a metronome at the expense of 4: one time with one foot per step, two with the other, three with one foot on the floor, four with the other.
The duration of the exercise should not exceed 5 minutes. If during the ascent due to fatigue you begin to lag behind the set pace, then after 15-20 seconds stop the ascent and fix the working time in seconds. The test is stopped when external signs of fatigue appear: pallor of the face, stumbling, etc. After finishing work in a sitting position, count the heart rate for the first 30 seconds of the 2nd minute of the recovery period, count it for a minute. The value of IGST is determined by the formula:
where t is the test execution time in seconds; Heart rate - heart rate in the 2nd minute of the recovery period.
Assess physical performance by the value of the obtained index, comparing it with the data in table 13.
PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE ON THE INDEX
HARVARD STEP TEST
3. Perform laboratory work "Research on the body's response to a change in body position."
Perform an orthostatic test and evaluate it.
3.1. Orthostatic test
Working process. Stay in the supine position for 10 minutes. At the 11th minute in the supine position, count the pulse and measure blood pressure. Then stand with your back against the wall so that your feet are one foot from the wall. You are in this position for 10 minutes. Take heart rate, blood pressure and overall well-being immediately after changing the position of the body and after 1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes.
Enter the results of heart rate and blood pressure in table 14. Evaluate the sample according to the data given in table 15. Sample results in a notebook and compare them with lifestyle features (smoking, the habit of drinking strong tea, coffee, physical inactivity, etc.) or with the presence of diseases. Explain the regulatory mechanisms for increased heart rate when moving from horizontal to vertical.
ORTHOSTATIC TEST RESULTS
Surname, name, patronymic of the subject _________________________
ASSESSING ORTOSTATIC TEST
(BY V.M. ZAGRADSKY AND E.K. SULIMO-SAMUILO, 1976)
* Indicators are measured immediately after rising.
4. Perform laboratory work “Determining and assessing the level of adaptive capabilities of the body and circulatory system according to the method of R. M. Baevsky in the modification of A. B. Bersenyeva (1987)”
Working process. Enter the following formula in the workbook and substitute the values obtained by measuring heart rate at rest in one minute, ADsyst. and ADdiast., as well as indicators: B - age, years; M - body weight, kg; P - growth, cm: AP in points = 0.011 HR + 0.014 ADS. + 0.008AD + 0.014V + 0.009M - 0.009R - 0.27,
where AP is the adaptive potential;
Assess the result by table 16
NORMATIVE VALUES OF AP FOR ADULTS
(R.M. BAEVSKIY, A.B. BERSENIEVA AND DR., 1987)
Given the obtained indicators of the adaptation coefficient, evaluate the functionality of the circulatory system according to the following scale: AP less than 2.6 - the functionality of the circulatory system is good. Adaptation mechanisms are stable: the effect of an unfavorable lifestyle factor is successfully compensated by the mobilization of the body's internal reserves, empirically selected measures (sports enthusiasm, rational distribution of time for work, rest, adequate nutrition).
AP, equal to 2.6 -3.09, - satisfactory functionality of the circulatory system with moderate voltage regulation mechanisms. This category of healthy people with latent or unrecognized diseases, requiring additional examination. Hidden or unclearly expressed violations of adaptation processes can be restored using non-drug correction methods (massage, muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, auto-training) that compensate for the insufficiency or weakness of the internal link of self-regulation of functions.
AP more than 3.09 - decrease, insufficient capabilities of the circulatory system, the presence of severe violations of adaptation processes. Full diagnostics, qualified treatment and an individual selection of preventive measures during remission are needed.
5. Based on the data obtained as a result of the functional tests, make a conclusion about the state of your cardiovascular system, the level of its adaptation to physical activity and the performance of physical endurance work. Make a conclusion about the level of adaptive capabilities of the body and circulatory system. Compare the obtained results with lifestyle features or the presence (absence) of diseases and identify the presence (absence) of connections.
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