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Human constitution, its effect on individual physical health

Recommended reading:

• main

1. Valueology: ed. V.I. Bobritsko.- Poltava: 2000.-Part 1, section 4.

Additional

2. Kosovanova L.M., Melnikova M.M., Aizman R.I. Screening diagnostics of the health of schoolchildren and students. Educational-methodical manual. - Novosibirsk, 2003;

3.Vayner E.N., Volynskaya E.V. Valeology: Training workshop. - M.: 2002

4. Medical and biological foundations of valeology. Navalny post_bnik for students_ navch. mortgage / Pid ed. P.D. Plakhtіya.- Kam'yanets-Podilsky: 2000.

5. Apanasenko G.L., Popova L.A. Medical Valeology. - Kyiv, “Health”., 1998.



reference books

6. Torokhova E.I. Valueology: Dictionary. -M .: Flint: Science, 2002



• Additional information block ..

One of the approaches to predicting health is to assess the morphofunctional type of constitution, since the health status of children and adults, their adaptive capabilities and predisposition to various mental and somatic diseases largely depend on the constitutional type (R.I. Aizman, G.N. Zharova, 1991).

The human constitution (lat. Constitutio-device, constitution) is a complex of individual relatively stable morphological and functional (including psychological) features of a person. The morphofunctional constitution of a person is currently considered as its genetic potential, the implementation of which, in turn, is determined by the influence of the environment. This implies an important conclusion about the need to match a person’s lifestyle with his hereditary typology, and for this you should determine your type of constitution.

Constitutional differences appear very early; it is possible to establish body types even in infants. However, the final formation of the type occurs later, especially actively during puberty.

There is no generally accepted theory and unified classification of constitutional types in world literature (more than 50 classifications are known, each of which is conditional).

According to the scheme of M.V. Chernorutsky (1929), three types are distinguished depending on the index of physiological development, based on the ratio of indicators of body weight, its length, chest circumference, etc.:

• hypersthenic (picnic) - it is characterized by a predominance of transverse sizes (these are broad shoulders, broad-chested, round-headed people with a short and powerful neck, not tall, with well-defined subcutaneous fat), their internal organs are larger, blood pressure is higher, heart rate is frequent, etc.

• asthenic - characteristic is the predominance of longitudinal over transverse dimensions (these are narrow shoulders, narrow-chested people with a long, lean face, a long and thin neck, tall, with long thin limbs), their muscles are poorly developed, the heart, liver and other organs are relatively small in size, the lungs are elongated, the intestines are short, its absorption capacity is decreased, blood pressure is lower, VC is more, etc.

• normosthenic (athletic) - an average option.

• In addition to these basic constitutional types, a lot of intermediate ones are defined (for example, astheno-normosthenic, normo-hypersthenic, etc.). Each type of constitution has its own “weaknesses”, its primary diseases.

According to the scheme of V.V.

• brachymorphic - an epigastric angle of more than 90? ; these are people with dense skin, with a predominance of connective tissue structures, with well-defined subcutaneous fat, broad-bones, with a predominance of static muscles, slow, unemotional, outwardly calm, have a high degree of conservatism, are prone to diseases of the genitourinary system, ENT organs , to pustular skin diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension;

• dolichomorphic - epigastric angle less than 90? These are impulsive, emotional, narrow-boned people with thin skin, mobile, impressive, often suspicious, easily excitable, have a high degree of nervous exhaustion, and a low level of adaptation.
Often sick with acute respiratory infections, predisposed to neurosis, hypofunction of various parts of the digestive system.

• mesomorphic - epigastric angle = 90 ?, these are harmoniously developed, proportionately folded people, have medium-thickness skin, transitional muscles, are well adapted to various situations.

They are distinguished by the strongest health of all types of constitution. Suffer from vegetovascular dystonia, musculoskeletal system lesions, radiculitis.

By Stefko V.G. and Ostrovsky A.D. Four types of constitution are distinguished (including for children):

• astenoid - similar to the asthenic type;

• muscular - corresponds to the athletic type;

• digestive - similar to the hypersthenic type;

• thoracic. - closer to the asthenic type, but the shape of the chest is cylindrical, epigastric angle = 90, more developed muscle tissue.

V.P.Kaznacheev distinguishes three constitutional types of people, focusing not on the type of physique, but on the degree of endurance, especially adaptive mechanisms (functional and metabolic classification):

• “sprinters” - they adapt well to a sharp change of situation, they have high mobilization readiness in emergency situations, quickly turn into new rhythms of life and work; they are indispensable when you need to perform a large amount of work in a short time. Pathological processes in them proceed sharply, without going into a chronic form: Hypersthenics are more likely to gravitate to this type of adaptation;

• “styers” - are hard to adapt to new conditions, have a low degree of mobilization readiness, but are resistant to long-term loads. Pathological processes in them are sluggish, a tendency to relapse and a transition to a chronic form is noted. Asthenics are more likely to gravitate to this type of adaptation;

• “mixed type” - characterized by intermediate structural and metabolic qualities,

• According to the author, the ratio of these types is approximately 24:31:45.

It is possible to determine approximately belonging to one or another type of constitution in various ways:

1. arithmetic (by weight and height index);

2. around the circumference of the wrist;

3. according to external examination (the shape of the chest, abdomen, back, legs) and the degree of development of bone, muscle and adipose tissue.



Having worked the recommended literature, the student should be able to:

1. Define the constitution of man.

2. Describe the types of constitution according to the classification of M. Chernorutsky.

3. Explain the principle of distinguishing the types of constitution according to the scheme of V.V. Ilyuschenkov and T. A. Bersenova; V.P.Kaznacheeva and others.

4. To characterize the relationship of the constitution and predisposition to certain diseases.

5. List the ways to determine whether a person belongs to a particular type of constitution.
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