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Lecture No. 5 Topic: Physiology of the human body. Stress, its role in adapting a person to social and labor activities.
1. The structure and function of the nervous regulatory system of the human body.
2. The structure and function of the humoral regulatory system of the human body.
3. The concept of mental health. Criteria and factors determining psycho. health. The concept of stress as a general adaptation syndrome (the doctrine of stress G. Selye).
4. The essence of psychogenic stress and its effect on humans.
There are two regulatory systems - nervous and humoral.
The nervous system is divided into central and peripheral. Depending on the nature of the innervation of organs and tissues, the nervous system is divided into somatic and autonomic.
The brain is located in the cerebral region of the skull. It consists of five departments that perform various functions: oblong, posterior (Varolian bridge and cerebellum), middle, intermediate, forebrain (cerebral hemispheres).
1. The medulla oblongata is responsible for digestion, respiration, cardiac activity, protective reflexes (vomiting, coughing).
2. The hind brain. Varoliev bridge - pathways between the cerebellum and the hemispheres. The cerebellum regulates motor acts (balance, coordination of movements).
3. Midbrain - maintains muscle tone, is responsible for orienting, guarding and defensive reflexes to visual and sound stimuli.
4. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus, epi and hypotolamus. The pineal gland is adjacent to it above, and the pituitary gland is below. It regulates all complex motor reflexes, coordinates the work of internal organs and participates in the humoral regulation of metabolism, the consumption of water and food, and maintaining a constant body temperature.
5. The forebrain carries out mental activities: memory, speech, thinking, behavior. Consists of gray and white matter. Gray matter forms the cortex and subcortical structures and is a collection of bodies of neurons and their short processes (dendrites), white matter - long processes - dexons.
The spinal cord is located in the bony spinal canal. It has the appearance of a white cord with a diameter of about one centimeter. It has 31 segments, from which a pair of mixed spinal nerves departs. It has two functions - reflex and conductor.
1. Reflex function - the implementation of motor and autonomic reflexes (vasomotor, food, respiratory, defecation, urination, sexual).
2. Conduction function - conducting nerve impulses from the brain to the body and vice versa.
The autonomic nervous system controls the activity of internal organs, glands and does not obey the will of man. It consists of nuclei - an accumulation of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, autonomic nodes - an accumulation of neurons outside the central nervous system and from nerve endings. The autonomic system is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
The sympathetic system mobilizes the body in an extreme situation. Its nuclei are located in the spinal cord, and the nodes near it. With its excitement, heart contractions increase and intensify, blood redistributes from the internal organs to the muscles, and reduces the glandular motor function of the stomach and intestines.
Parasympathetic system. Its nuclei are located in the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and partly in the spinal cord, and the function - the opposite of the sympathetic - the "rebound" system - contributes to the course of recovery processes in the body.
Humoral regulation is carried out by endocrine and mixed secretion glands.
1. The endocrine glands (endocrine glands) do not have excretory ducts and secrete their secrets directly into the blood.
2. Glands of mixed secretion - at the same time carry out both external and internal secretion (pancreas, sex glands) - secrete secrets into the blood and into the cavity of organs.
The endocrine glands secrete hormones. All of them are characterized by a high intensity of the impact, its distance - the provision of action at a distance from the place of production; high specificity of action, as well as the identity of the action of hormones in animals and humans. Hormones exert their influence on the body in various ways: through the nervous system, the humoral system and directly affecting the working organs and physiological processes.
There are a large number of endocrine glands: hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal gland, thymus, gonads, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, placenta, pancreas. Let's analyze the functions of some of them.
Hypothalamus - is involved in the regulation of salt-water metabolism, through the synthesis of anti-inflammatory hormone; in incontinence of homothermia; control of emotions and behavior, the activity of the reproductive organs; causes lactation.
With hypofunction, diabetes insipidus develops due to very strong and profuse diuresis. With hyperfunction, edema appears, arterial hyperemia, sleep disturbance.
The pituitary gland is located in the brain, it produces growth hormone, as well as the activity of other glands. The production of lactogenic hormone and hormone that regulates the pigmentation of the skin and hair. Pituitary hormones include lipid oxidation. With hypofunction in childhood, dwarfism (dwarfism) develops. With hyperfunction in childhood, gigantism develops, and in adult acromegaly.
The thyroid gland secretes the iodine hormone thyroxine. With hypo-function in childhood, cretinism develops - growth retardation, mental and sexual development. In adulthood, they have a thyroid goiter, intellectual abilities decrease, cholesterol levels in the blood increase, the menstrual cycle is violated, miscarriage often occurs (premature birth and miscarriage). With hyperteriosis, a bazedova disease develops.
The pancreas secretes two opposite hormones that regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates - glucogone, which is responsible for the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, and insulin - for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. With deficiency
glucogone and excess insulin develops severe hypoglycemic coma. With an excess of glucogon and a deficiency of insulin - diabetes.
Mental health - a harmonious development of the human psyche in accordance with his age.
Key criteria for assessing mental health.
• The degree of development of intelligence;
• The ability to control your emotions and behavior in various situations;
• Ability to cope with stress.
Mental Health Factors
? Experience gained in the process of education;
The inheritance is the mobility of nerve impulses in the cerebral cortex, which determine the type of nervous activity (temperament).
4 types of temperament:
Choleric is a highly mobile type, low balanced, excitation processes prevail over inhibition processes, good short-term memory. DISADVANTAGE - rarely completes the job.
Sanguine - a strong type, balanced, good memory, able to perform several tasks at the same time and bring them to the end.
Melancholic - the process of inhibition and excitement is balanced, but proceed slowly, poor memory, slow mood changes, weakly unbalanced.
Phlegmatic - not very balanced, the process of inhibition prevails over excitement, good memory.
Pathological forms of education:
1. type of emotional rejection - parents make the child feel guilty by exaggerating his shortcomings (CINDERELLA type);
2. hyper-custody - manifested in hyper (too) caring for the child, which prevents the ability to make their own independent decisions;
3. Education on the type of increasing moral responsibility - parents require the child to fulfill their dreams, which they could not fulfill;
4. contradictory upbringing - parents have different attitudes towards the child, they transfer their problems to him, presenting their requirements for him (GO HERE - STAY POSITION);
5. a change in the image of upbringing - arises from the breakdown of a family or a serious illness of one of them;
6. physical abuse - treatment of a child that is not educational in nature.
The term "Stress" was formed in 1926.
Canadian scientist Hans Selye, who gave the following definition of this concept:
STRESS is an innate defensive reaction of an organism to existing external irritation.
Types of stress
1. Eustress - positive stress, proceeds without loss for the body (mobilization of forces when performing an important task - marriage).
2. Distress - excessive stress, occurs with losses for the body.
Factors causing stress:
1. physical: sharp temperature fluctuations, pressure drops, radiation, high concentration of carbon dioxide in the air;
2. emotional: fear, fatigue, powerlessness (lack of control over events), isolation, increased pace of life, excess or lack of information;
3. theological: diseases, injuries, character traits - resentment, suspiciousness, sense of inferiority, low self-esteem;
4. temporary: factors of the past - act as stress: accumulated resentment, mistakes, failures. Factors of the present - mood, problems. Future Factors - Session, Upcoming Divorce.
When a person is affected by damaging factors, damage develops in his body and protective and adaptive mechanisms are activated that support homeostasis of the internal environment. These mechanisms are included on the impact of various damaging factors, i.e. they are not specific. The provisions on stress as a general adaptation syndrome were developed by G. Selye. He identified the following groups of damaging factors - physical (cold, heat), biological (viruses, bacteria), chemical (poisons, acids, alkalis), mechanical (injuries, psycho-emotional overstrain). All of them cause both selective effects and general reactions of an unfavorable and compensatory-adaptive plan. This set of changes is called the general adaptation syndrome. The following stages of stress development are: anxiety, resistance, and exhaustion.
1. The stage of anxiety is characterized by a decrease in the size of the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes, as well as their functions. This is due to the high concentration of glucocorticoids (adrenaline and norepinephrine).
2. Stage of resistance - stage of increased resistance to stress. At this time, blood pressure rises, carbohydrate metabolism increases, breathing quickens and deepens. With increasing resistance, there is an increase in the number of neutrophils, hemoglobin, and body temperature rises. The breakdown of proteins, the T and B lymphocyte system is activated.
3. Stage of exhaustion. It develops if a person is affected by a very strong damaging factor or if the duration of exposure to a moderate force factor is very long. It is characterized by inhibition of the central nervous system, depletion of lymphoid organs.
The consequence is the development of an adaptation disease and various infectious and non-contagious diseases that can result in death.
Signs of stressful conditions:
1). PHYSICAL: insomnia, causeless pain, dizziness, loss of appetite, drowsiness, hunger.
2). PSYCHOLOGICAL: anxiety, anger, inability to concentrate, poor mood, irritability.
3). BEHAVIORAL: nail biting, alcohol abuse, smoking, nervous laughter.
Methods for the prevention of stressful conditions:
? Do not be afraid to talk about your problems;
? Separate household responsibilities;
? To be humble - to be aware of your abilities;
? Plan dividing taking into account forces;
? Physical exercises and hydroprocedures;
? Full sleep.
As you already understood, in addition to various somatic factors, stress causes the impact of various psychoemotional factors. At the same time, nonspecific changes appear in the central nervous system. Psychogenic stress occurs with prolonged exposure to pain, intoxication, with a sharp change in physical stress to mental. Strong emotions accompany somatic stresses, in this case psychogenic stress is secondary.
The course of psychogenic stress.
1. Acute stress - an unexpected effect when exposed to the expectation effect. It is caused by extremely unpleasant information about loved ones, natural disasters, catastrophes and other emergency situations.
2. Subacute stress. It is caused by similar reasons, but with the effect of expectation of trouble. The astronaut develops subacute stress when he is prepared for an unusual situation, but does not know the time when it will occur and its causes. Similar stress is characteristic of the military.
3. Chronic stress. It occurs in people living in constant expectation of trouble and in people who are under constant realization of moderate-strength stimuli.
According to the biological effect, the state of normostress, hyperstress and hypostress is distinguished.
1. The state of normostress is characterized by prolonged brain function with a minimum of errors. It is formed with the participation of long-term memory of previously experienced. Memory supports and controls the level of brain function.
2. Hyperstress - the impact of superstrong stimuli of a positive or negative nature. In a state of hyperstress, the brain functions in a certain corridor. Its boundaries are individual. Exposure to a factor of sufficient strength expands this corridor. If the factor of transcendental strength or the factor of moderate force lasts a very long time, then the corridor breaks and hypostress develops.
3. Hypostress. In humans, it is manifested by neurosis, hysterical states, addiction and rapid addiction in the use of xenobiotics. In this state, a depressive state, phobias quickly develops, much less often it is manifested by increased aggressiveness.
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