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Lecture No. 7 Topic: Environmental aspects of health and human survival prospects.
I. The history of the relationship between man and nature.
II. Types of environmental pollution.
III. Prospects for the survival of mankind.
The relationship between man and the biosphere so far has gone through several critical stages of development;
1. The crisis of the primitive appropriating economy (gathering and hunting alone for small game). Ancient people came out, inventing spears, axes, darts, bow with arrows, harpoons, boats and other types of hunting weapons and fishing gears. At the same time, man switched to the arrangement of traps for large game and to driven hunting for it.
The crisis of the over-fishing of large animals (the disappearance of woolly rhinoceros, the mammoth cave bear and many other commercial species of large animals due to climate change and the extermination of these species by people. Man has switched from hunting and gathering to farming and animal husbandry.
2. The crisis of primitive agriculture. It arose in agricultural and cattle-breeding civilizations between the Tigris and Euphrates, in North America, the Middle East, and Central and Central Asia due to excessive deforestation, soil degradation, erosion, waterlogging or salinization. This process also contributed to overgrazing. The result was the emergence of the Sahara, the Arabian desert and others.
3. The producers' crisis erupted in a temperate zone, where people carried out massive forest clearing, farming by slash-and-burn methods. We prepared wood for firewood, for the construction of ships and houses - a significant reduction in the area of broad-leaved forests in the temperate zone, which led to a change in climate, atmospheric composition and other environmental conditions.
4. The crisis of reducers - the slow pace of cleaning the biosphere from pollution by reducers or the inability to do so. Australia.
5. Thermodynamic crisis - thermal pollution of the troposphere by heat. It is formed during the burning of huge quantities of combustible minerals (oil, gas, coal), products of their processing, organic substrates of wildlife, with the simultaneous formation of the greenhouse effect.
6. The crisis of biosphere stability. It is due to the rapid extinction of a huge number of species of living creatures and slow speciation; the destruction of the ozone layer; accumulation of various toxins in environmental elements.
The size of humanity is currently growing rapidly. This leads to an increase in the consumption of natural resources and the production of waste products and consumption. At the same time, they can pollute the environment during extraction or removal - a component of the biosphere (lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere)
The biosphere is a natural area of life on Earth, including the lower layer of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the upper layer of the lithosphere, which have not experienced anthropogenic impact.
In the process of evolution, man has continuously acted on the natural environment, and mainly on the biosphere. To achieve these goals, he transformed part of the biosphere into territories occupied by the technosphere.
What substances pollute the hydrosphere?
Water Consumption in the Russian Federation in 2005 reached 85.9 km3, including for needs,%
? production - 57.9;
? household drinking - 20.3;
? irrigation - 13.7;
? agricultural water supply - 2.1;
? others - 6.0.
When used, water is usually polluted and then discharged into water bodies. Inland water bodies are polluted by sewage from various industries (metallurgical, oil refining, chemical), agriculture and housing and communal services, as well as surface runoff.
Pollutants are divided into biological (organic microorganisms), causing water fermentation; chemical, changing its transparency (turbidity), temperature and other indicators.
Biological contaminants enter water bodies with domestic and industrial effluents, mainly from food, medical, biological, and pulp and paper industries.
Chemical contaminants enter water bodies with industrial, surface and domestic wastewater. These include: petroleum products, heavy metals and their compounds, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, detergents. The most dangerous are lead, mercury, cadmium.
Physical pollution enters water bodies with industrial drains, when discharged from mine workings, quarries, when flushed from the territories of industrial zones, cities, highways, due to precipitation of atmospheric dust.
In 2000, 55.6 km3 of wastewater was discharged into the country's water bodies, of which 20.3 km3 were polluted. The highest level of water pollution is observed in the basins of the Dniester, Pechora, Ob, Yenisei, Amur, Northern Dvina, Volga, and Ural river basins. Impact on the hydrosphere leads to the following negative consequences:
? stocks of drinking water are reduced;
? the state and development of the fauna and flora of water bodies change;
? the cycle of many substances in the biosphere is disturbed;
? the planet’s biomass and, as a consequence, the reproduction of oxygen are reduced.
Humanity in its development has come a long way in the evolution of the biological species and relationships in the human biosphere system. At present, Homo sapiens is the dominant species of planet Earth. Currently, the number of people is growing exponentially. However, remember that the population of the homo sapiens species is limited by the availability of natural resources and living conditions, socio-economic and genetic mechanisms. The increase in the number of people obeys exponential laws. So at the beginning of its history, the biological species human-intelligent was small, and its number grew slowly. The first billion was achieved recently, in the 19th century. However, in the 20th century, the population of our species exceeded the six billionth mark. Scientists have estimated that the ultimate environmental capacity of our species is 12 billion people. Now the rate of increase in the number of mankind is such that in 10 months 24 million people who died in the 14th century from the plague and less than two years would have been restored for the appearance of 165 million people killed in all wars over the past 200 years. The maximum number of mankind is estimated by scientists about 12.5 billion people. The population of the Earth at the beginning of history grew at a rate of 0.002% per year. In the seventies of the last century, it amounted to 2, 06% per year. After reaching critical numbers, humanity will die out. Petri dish.
The limiting factors for the survival of human society are resources. Resources are what we get from the environment to meet our needs. They are divided into several categories:
1. Non-renewable - exhaustible resources such as fossil fuels that cannot be recycled or reused
2. Potentially renewable - forests, meadows, animals, water, air, soil fertility. They are restored by natural processes, if they are not used faster than they are restored.
3. Eternal resources - actually unused resources of solar energy, wind energy.
For the sustainable development of mankind, the conservation of resources is necessary. It includes their use and protection, so that they are accessible and meet the demands made on them by both modern generations of people and future ones. Non-renewable resources of fossil fuels and minerals are considered economically exhaustible. The economic depletion of a resource occurs when what remains in the bowels becomes too expensive to mine.
Environmental degradation occurs when potentially renewable resources are withdrawn or used faster than they are restored by natural processes. If such use continues, resources may become non-renewable or even cease to exist. This can happen both due to the use of this type of resources, and due to its pollution.
Environmental problems are caused by complex, poorly understood combinations of such interrelated factors as population size, resource use, technology, political, social and ethical factors.
Currently, there are two concepts for the development of relations between mankind - the environment:
1. Neo-Malthusians - the use of human ingenuity and technological advances to collaborate with nature, rather than deplete it and lead to degradation.
2. Kornupians - the use of human ingenuity and technological advances to conquer the "Earth" to ensure sustainable economic growth.
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Lecture No. 7 Topic: Environmental aspects of health and human survival prospects.
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