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The exchange of water and minerals
The human body is 60% water. Adipose tissue contains 20% of water (from its mass), bones - 25, liver - 70, skeletal muscles - 75, blood - 80, brain - 85%.
For the normal functioning of the body, which lives in a changing environment, it is very important the constancy of the internal environment of the body. It is created by blood plasma, tissue fluid, lymph, the main part of which is water, proteins and mineral salts. Water and mineral salts do not serve as nutrients or energy sources. But without water, metabolic processes cannot proceed. Water is a good solvent. Water is part of the digestive juices, participates in the removal of metabolic products from the body, among which are toxic substances, as well as in thermoregulation.
Without water, a person can live no more than 7 - 10 days, while without food 30 - 40 days. Water is removed along with urine through the kidneys (1700 ml), with sweat through the skin (500 ml) and with air exhaled through the lungs (300 ml).
The ratio of the total amount of fluid consumed to the total amount of fluid released is called the water balance.
Water enters the human body in a "pure form" and in the composition of various products with which it also receives the elements it needs. The daily human need for water leaves 2.0 - 2.5 liters. The daily human need for some trace elements is as follows: potassium 2.7– 5.9 g, sodium 4–5 g, calcium 0.5 g, magnesium 70–80 mg, iron 10–15 mg, manganese up to 100 mg, chlorine 2–4 g, iodine 100-150 mg.
Mineral substances are part of the skeleton, the structure of proteins, hormones, enzymes. The total amount of all minerals in the body is about 4–5% of body weight. The main part of the mineral substances a person receives from food and water. However, their content in food is not always sufficient. Most people have to add, for example, sodium chloride (NaCL - salt) in food 10 - 12 g per day.
Chronic lack of minerals in the diet can lead to a breakdown of body functions.
Especially sensitive to the lack of certain salts, children and pregnant women. Calcium and phosphorus salts are needed to build bones and teeth, which contains 70% of total phosphorus and 99% of potassium present in the body. Iron deficiency leads to severe illness - anemia. Iodine is an important part of thyroid hormone - thyroxin, which is involved in the regulation of metabolism.
Vitamins (lat vita - life). The value of vitamins is that, when present in the body in trace amounts, they regulate metabolic reactions. With a lack of vitamins in the body develops a condition called hypovitaminosis.
The disease that occurs in the absence of one or another vitamin is called vitamin deficiency.
To date, more than 20 substances have been discovered that are related to vitamins:
Vitamin A With vitamin A deficiency, the body's growth processes are delayed, the metabolism is disturbed, and there is also a special eye disease called xerophthalmia (night blindness).
Vitamin D is called an anti-ishitic vitamin. The lack of it leads to the breakdown of phosphorus and calcium metabolism.
Vitamin B Lack of these vitamins leads to metabolic disorders, disorders of the central nervous system. This reduces the body's resistance to infectious diseases.
Vitamin C is called antiscorbutic. With a lack of it in food (and most of all it is contained in fresh fruits and vegetables) a specific disease develops - scurvy, in which the gums bleed, and the teeth become loose and fall out. Physical weakness, fatigue, nervousness develops.
Vitamin E and K - are important for the body and belong to the well-known vitamins.
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The exchange of water and minerals
- WATER AND MINERAL EXCHANGE
Water is an important part of any cell, the liquid base of the blood and lymph. In humans, the water content in different tissues is not the same. For example, in adipose tissue it is about 10%, in bones - 20, in the kidneys - 83, in the brain - 85, in the blood —90%, which averages 70% of body weight. Water in the body performs a number of important functions. Many chemicals are dissolved in it, it actively participates in
- Mineral water
Natural mineral waters are groundwater with different chemical composition, saturated with carbon dioxide and other gases. Water salinity varies from 1-2 g / l (table water) to 8-12 g / l (medicinal water). Some natural mineral waters contain a large number of trace elements - iron, bromine, iodine, giving the waters a certain flavor. Artificial mineral waters are obtained
Mineral substances are essential nutrients that must be ingested. The value of minerals in human nutrition is very diverse: 1. Mineral substances in the body are included in the complex of substances that make up the living protoplasm of cells, in which the main substance is protein. 2. Mineral substances are part of all the extracellular and interstitial
- Water exchange is normal
An adult consumes approximately 2500 ml of water per day, including approximately 300 ml of water formed as a result of metabolism. Water loss is about 2500 ml / day, of which 1500 ml is excreted in the urine, 800 ml evaporates (400 ml through the respiratory tract and 400 ml through the skin), 100 ml is excreted with sweat and 100 ml more with feces. Evaporation water losses play a very important role in
- EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES AND ENERGY IN THE HUMAN BODY
The metabolism proceeds continuously in all cells, tissues and systems of the body and helps to maintain vital activity and preserve the constancy of the internal environment. As a result of metabolic processes are formed substances necessary for the construction of cells and tissues. Through the metabolism is provided by the entry of energy necessary for his life, is restored
- Minerals and trace elements (minerals)
Minerals are inorganic constituents of food. Many of them play an important role in the body, and their constant intake with food is necessary. The mineral composition of food includes more than 60 macro-and micronutrients. ___________ __ conduction of nervous excitement to muscles Iron hematopoiesis (composed of hemoglobin, 60% of total Fe in the body), anemia, rapid fatigue
- DETERMINATION OF THE GENERAL CONTENT OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES (ASH)
The total content of mineral substances in the material under study is determined by its ashing, that is, organic substances are burned with free access of air. During combustion, carbon, hydrogen, and partially oxygen evaporate in the form of carbon dioxide and water vapor, and mineral elements in the form of oxide compounds remain in the so-called raw ash. Course of determination
- Metabolism and energy.
General concept of metabolism Energy is released as a result of the oxidation of complex organic substances that make up the cells, tissues and organs of a person before the formation of simpler compounds. The consumption of these nutrients by the body is called dissimilation. Simple substances formed during the oxidation process (water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, urea) are excreted from the body.
Metabolism is the main, indispensable condition of the body's vital activity with the cessation of metabolism, biological death occurs. Metabolism is composed of two interrelated, simultaneously occurring, but opposite processes - assimilation and dissimilation. Metabolism in animals includes three stages. The initial stage is associated with the receipt, change, transformation
- Hygienic importance of minerals and vitamins in the diet of the population
Minerals and vitamins play a very important and at the same time peculiar role in the vital activity of the organism. First of all, they are not used as energy materials, which is a specific feature for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Another distinctive feature of these nutrients is the relatively very insignificant quantitative need for them in the body. Enough