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The body and the environment

From the first moments of life to the very last minute, the human body interacts with the external environment. She surrounds him always, everywhere and everywhere. This interaction is a necessary condition for the normal growth and development of a person. It is under the influence of the external environment that the structure and functions of the human body are formed in various periods of life. This is especially noticeable in early childhood, when the activities of all systems and organs are improved.

Under the influence of almost any influences, changes to a greater or lesser extent occur in the internal environment of the body, and all known reactions of it are aimed at maintaining or aligning its parameters. They are called adaptive-compensatory reactions (adaptation - with Lat. Adaptation, addiction), which are based on adaptive-compensatory mechanisms. If the intensity or aggressiveness of the factor does not go beyond the limits of adaptive-compensatory reactions, the body copes without much damage. In the case when the intensity of the impact is very high or long enough, the voltage of the adaptive-compensatory mechanisms reaches a significant level. With prolonged exposure, the destruction of these mechanisms and the development of the disease occur.

The external environment as an integrated system includes a large number of different elements or factors that differ in quantity and quality (Fig. 1).

Throughout life, a person is influenced by a variety of factors of the external and internal environment of the body. Consider each of the factors separately.





Physical factors. Physical factors include all types of electromagnetic waves of natural or artificial origin.

The most powerful natural source of electromagnetic waves in nature, of course, is the Sun. It is thanks to solar energy that all biological processes on Earth occur. The whole biosphere and life itself exists only due to solar energy. The wavelength range of solar radiation extends from several fractions of a nanometer (gamma radiation) to meter radio waves.

The human eye perceives daylight, painted white. However, in fact, white is a combination of seven different colors - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue and violet. Visible color is determined by the wavelength (and therefore the frequency of oscillations). Red has a wavelength of 760 nm, yellow-green - 556 nm, and purple - 380 nm.

Of all the solar radiation in the visible range, ultraviolet radiation has the strongest biological effect. It has a pronounced erythema effect, that is, it causes redness of the human skin with subsequent formation of pigment. This is nothing but a protective reaction of the body from overheating. Excessive exposure to the sun can cause not only redness, but also the formation of bubbles, in other words, a burn of the first or second degree. And this requires serious treatment. Thus, the direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation on a living organism is far from safe.

Natural sources of EMF can be divided into two groups. The first includes the constant electric and magnetic fields of the Earth, the second - radio waves generated by space sources (the Sun, stars), as well as electrical processes in the atmosphere, for example, lightning discharges. The frequency range varies widely.

The occurrence of the electric field of the Earth is associated with the presence of a negative charge on its surface. Its tension is usually in the range from 100 to 500 V / m. Thunderstorm clouds can increase field strengths to hundreds of kV / m. Different people react differently to EMF, as they have different sensitivity to them. Some people do not notice magnetic storms at all, while others, on the contrary, even feel slight changes in electromagnetic fields.

It is interesting to note that, according to experts, the human body also emits electromagnetic fields with a frequency of over 300 GHz. The power flux density is equal to 0.003 W / m2.
The surface area of ​​the body is about 2 m2. Thus, the total radiated energy is 0.0054 watts. This is quite a tangible value.

Artificial sources of electromagnetic radiation are radio stations, radar stations, high voltage power lines and many other transmitting technical means. They emit energy in a very wide range of wavelengths - from millimeters to several tens and hundreds of meters. A particularly strong effect is observed near radiation sources.

Electronic communications, cordless telephones, televisions, radio equipment, personal computers, and microwave ovens are being intensively introduced into our home life. On the street, we are exposed to the electromagnetic effects of electric vehicles (trams, trolleybuses), various power lines, transformer substations, radiating radio and television antennas. All these types of electromagnetic radiation have a constant (in the daytime and at night) effect on a person.

Chemical factors. Chemicals are widely used by humans in production and in everyday life (preserving, washing, cleaning, disinfecting agents, as well as means for painting and gluing various objects).

All chemicals used in everyday life in small quantities are safe for health. However, violation of the rules for their use can have an adverse effect on the body.

Chemicals should also include drugs that are prescribed by doctors for various diseases. Many modern medicines are available in the form of multi-colored dragees, they have a very attractive appearance, so children often confuse them with sweets. Meanwhile, one tablet is enough to cause serious poisoning in a child, life-threatening.

Biological factors. The forms of existence of living matter on Earth are extremely diverse: from unicellular protozoa to highly organized biological organisms. All known microorganisms can be divided into three groups: completely safe for humans (saprophytes), we are in constant contact with them, but this never causes diseases; definitely harmful, i.e. dangerous to human health (meeting with them is always fraught with the development of an infectious disease, however, this happens when the body does not have appropriate protection); conditionally pathogenic (these are microorganisms that under normal conditions do not cause any disease in humans, however, when the body is weakened due to a cold or chronic illness, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, stress, fatigue, etc., they can cause diseases). A group of especially dangerous microorganisms that cause the most serious diseases in humans has been identified. These are, for example, causative agents of smallpox, plague, cholera, tularemia, anthrax, and polio.

Social factors. Social factors are connected with the life of people, with their relationship to each other and to society. Revolutionary transformations almost always cause social tension in society, which can have a negative impact on the individual and society as a whole. And on the contrary, the calm, progressive, evolutionary development of society and social relations guarantees a calm, creative environment and a decrease in the influence of factors of a social nature on the state of human health.

Mental factors. Environmental factors that have a mental coloring are associated with a specific aspect of human life. A person’s behavior in various situations, his perception of the surrounding reality, its emotional coloring, the nature of a person’s behavior in a particular situation, the formation of his personality are closely related to factors of the external and internal environment and their interaction between each other.

The implementation of the ideas of mental and social health will require each person to rethink such personal qualities as activity and responsibility, and from society - to review the current priorities and traditions in the field of upbringing and education, work and leisure.
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The body and the environment

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