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First aid for emergency conditions of the cardiovascular system
The main signs of diseases of the organs of the cardiovascular system are a change in the heart rate, a disturbance in the rhythm of contractions (arrhythmia), an increase or decrease in blood pressure, compressing chest pains, radiating to the left shoulder blade, shoulder and lower jaw, shortness of breath at rest, accompanied by swelling of the legs and cyanosis (cyanosis).
Acute vascular insufficiency is always accompanied by a sharp drop in blood pressure to 60–70 / 40 mm Hg, which leads to insufficient supply of oxygen to the brain and impaired consciousness. It appears in various clinical options.
Collapse - a sharp decrease in blood pressure, may not be accompanied by loss of consciousness.
Fainting - short-term loss of consciousness without a prolonged drop in blood pressure.
These conditions can occur in people suffering from chronic diseases and practically healthy people, responding to adverse environmental conditions, in all cases of internal bleeding, with severe pain, with dehydration, starvation, with strong emotional excitement, fright, with overwork, work in a stuffy room , a quick transition from a lying position to a sitting or standing position, prolonged standing on legs.
Symptoms: impaired consciousness until its complete loss. Harbingers are the feeling of "lightheadedness", ringing in the ears, dizziness, weakness, darkening in the eyes, nausea. A person turns pale, loses balance and falls. The pulse on the radial artery is not higher than 40 beats per minute. This condition lasts no more than one minute in adults and up to 10 minutes in children. If during this time a person does not recover, then a collapse is suspected. Collapse can last much longer.
First aid: lay unconscious on a back without a pillow, raise legs. Open the window, provide an influx of fresh air, free the neck, chest and stomach from tight clothing, bring cotton wool soaked with ammonia to your nose, you can sprinkle your face with cold water. If within 3 minutes a person does not regain consciousness, he should be turned on his stomach and call an ambulance. If at the same time there will be no pulse on the carotid artery, it is urgent to begin resuscitation.
Shock is a state of deep oppression of all body functions with the phenomena of acute vascular insufficiency. The reasons may be: injuries, surgeries, wounds, burns that cause severe pain, transfusion of another blood type, mental trauma.
Symptoms: deep apathy, extreme pallor, the pulse is barely felt or not detected, it drops sharply.
Emergency care: physical and mental peace; with bleeding, apply a tourniquet and pressure bandages that stop the flow of blood; lay with raised legs; to warm (warmers to arms and legs); drink hot tea; give 50-100 ml of alcohol; call an ambulance.
Hospitalization and treatment of the underlying disease are required.
Coma is an extreme degree of shock with a complete loss of consciousness, from which no irritants can withdraw the patient. There are three stages of a coma.
Superficial coma I is characterized by hypertonicity of skeletal muscles. The pupils are narrowed. Patients respond to the inhalation of ammonia vapor with a pronounced mimic reaction.
Superficial coma II is characterized by severe muscular hypotension with preserved reflexes. The mimic reaction to ammonia is weak. These patients are subject to hospitalization.
Deep coma is characterized by muscle hypotension and a complete lack of reflex activity. There is no pain sensitivity or reaction to inhalation irritation with ammonia.
It occurs under the influence of poisons, alcohol, sleeping pills, high temperature, etc. The main cause of coma is a violation of the blood supply to the brain. It is impossible to get out of this state without medical assistance.
Therefore, the only thing that can be done before the arrival of the ambulance is to turn the patient on his stomach so that he does not die from suffocation in his own tongue.
Motion sickness is a painful condition that occurs while pitching at sea (seasickness), in the air (airborne illness), when driving a car, when traveling by rail, when walking over rough terrain. The reason is increased sensitivity to irritation of the vestibular apparatus. Excitable people with signs of neurasthenia are more susceptible - women.
Symptoms: blanching of the skin, sweating, changes in breathing, pulse, nausea, vomiting, fainting, depression.
Emergency care: to sit in the direction of travel in transport; on the ship, lie on your back with your head thrown back closer to the center of the ship; close your eyes, eliminate bright light; strong odors; take the drug Aeron (lowers CNS excitability).
First aid for hypertensive crisis. Hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in various conditions and diseases. With hypertension, vascular tone rises, vessels narrow, blood pressure rises in them. A short-term increase in blood pressure is a normal reaction of a healthy person to physical activity or emotional stress and is not accompanied by a deterioration in well-being (see Chap. 1). Hypertension is a chronic disease that occurs with an increase in both maximum and minimum blood pressure, with changes in the heart, brain and kidneys.
Hypertensive crisis occurs with a sharp rise in blood pressure and is manifested by exacerbation of symptoms of hypertension. The patient complains of a headache, often in the back of the head, dizziness, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting. The face turns red, and the arms and legs get colder. Complications of a hypertensive crisis are ruptures of cerebral vessels with cerebral hemorrhage (cerebral stroke), myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema.
First aid. The patient should be seated, a heating pad should be applied to the feet or they should be lowered into a basin with hot water, this will increase the outflow of blood from the brain. For the same purpose, mustard must be applied to the back of the neck, and cold to the head. The patient may take a medicine that lowers blood pressure, if it was previously prescribed by a doctor.
First aid for an attack of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris occurs with narrowing of the lumen of the coronary vessels. An attack can occur during physical exertion - angina pectoris, or in a calm state, often at night - angina pectoris. Symptoms of an attack of angina are acute compressive pain behind the sternum (in the region of the heart), in the left half of the chest, it spreads to the left shoulder, left shoulder blade, sometimes in the left half of the lower jaw. The attack lasts from several minutes to half an hour.
First aid. Lay the patient, give the patient under the tongue a tablet of nitroglycerin or validol. If the pain intensity does not decrease after 5 minutes, then you need to call an ambulance, as the observed symptoms may be symptoms of a heart attack.
First aid for a heart attack. Myocardial infarction - necrosis (necrosis) of a part of the heart muscle as a result of a violation of its blood supply due to narrowed vessels of the heart or blood clot in them. Signs: the localization of pain is the same as with angina pectoris, but the intensity of the pain is much greater. Sometimes there is a gastric infarction, in which severe pain appears in the stomach, the stomach swells, nausea and vomiting are observed.
First aid. Urgently call an ambulance, before her arrival, ensure absolute peace, give nitroglycerin under the tongue. If there is no effect, repeat the administration of nitroglycerin in combination with painkillers.
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First aid for emergency conditions of the cardiovascular system
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