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First aid for injuries. Basic concepts about emergency care and requirements for it

The restoration of health, and sometimes the preservation of life, may depend to a great extent on the timely provision of first aid. "Emergency medical care" is a broad concept and includes the elimination or weakening of the impact of harmful factors that aggravate the development of the disease, and measures to restore the health of the victim.

Emergency medical assistance in the military unit should provide:

1. The possibility of immediate first aid at the site of injury, injury or after other extreme effects on the body.

2. Fast delivery of the wounded (affected) or ill person to the medical center in / part with the provision of first medical or pre-medical medical assistance on the way.

3. Provision of emergency first medical aid in the medical center as soon as possible and in the required amount.

4. Urgent medical evacuation (transportation) of the victim to a military hospital or hospital to obtain qualified and specialized medical care.

Currently, in the system of medical-evacuation activities of the US armed forces in the European theater of war there are three types of emergency medical care: first aid (provided in self-help and mutual aid), first medical aid (provided by an orderly) and emergency medical care (provided by a medical assistant or a doctor in the evacuation - brigade sorting station).

The concept of “first aid” adopted in our medicine includes a complex of rescue measures carried out on the battlefield (lesion focus) of both medical and organizational-technical (searching for the wounded, removing them from hard-to-reach places, carrying out and taking out of the battlefield).

But now, in order to emphasize the importance of not only medical, but also other activities carried out on the battlefield, they are considered in the concept of "first aid".
First aid is a set of urgent measures on the spot, aimed at preventing possible complications, at alleviating the suffering of the injured, including the use of personalized personal equipment and in the order of self and mutual help.

First aid in extreme situations is provided by the injured or nearby people themselves, as well as by sanitary instructors and orderlies.

One of the most difficult and urgent tasks is to substantially increase the level of preparedness of military personnel of all categories in rendering first aid to the wounded and sick.
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First aid for injuries. Basic concepts about emergency care and requirements for it

  1. First aid for various injuries
    Injury is damage to the tissues or organs of the body as a result of various external influences of a mechanical, physical, chemical or specific nature. At the same time, sprains connecting the bones in the joint, dislocations and fractures, local changes in tissues or organs and other injuries are possible. Injuries in the military is called military injuries, which are divided into
    In the previous lecture, we examined the methods of first aid in case of emergency due to various injuries, and in this case due to diseases or functional disorders. Such urgent conditions include: life-threatening pathological conditions; pathological conditions that are not life threatening at the moment, but lack of timely
  4. First aid for emergency conditions of the respiratory system
    The main signs of diseases of the respiratory system. Cough is a reflex protective act of the body. With the help of coughing, foreign bodies, sputum and other pathological elements are removed from the respiratory tract. Cough can be in the form of coughing, it is observed with tracheobronchitis, and paroxysmal cough, which is characteristic of whooping cough and bronchial asthma. Shortness of breath - difficulty
  5. Zakharenko OV. Emergency medical care. Symptoms, first aid at home, 2010

  6. First aid for emergency conditions of the cardiovascular system
    The main signs of cardiovascular disease are changes in heart rate, rhythm disturbance (arrhythmia), increase or decrease in blood pressure, contracting chest pain, radiating to the left shoulder blade, shoulder and lower jaw, dyspnea alone, accompanied by swelling of the legs and cyanosis (cyanosis). Acute vascular insufficiency is always
  8. SESSION 10 First aid for acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
    Objective: To teach students diagnosis and first aid for acute poisoning. To characterize the main drugs used in the provision of emergency assistance for poisoning. Test questions 1. What is called poisoning, what kind of poisoning does it take, what usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of predominant action of substances. What substances belong to these types? 3. Rules
  9. Types of emergency care
    The following types of medical care are distinguished: first (unqualified) medical care, first qualified (pre-medical) medical care, first medical care, qualified medical care, and specialized medical care. The first (unqualified) medical care is most often provided by people who do not have a medical education. Such
  10. First aid for injuries
    The most dangerous complications with open soft tissue injuries - wounds are bleeding, traumatic shock and infection. The wound causes pain to the victim, accompanied by bleeding and infection. Clinically injured manifest pain, bleeding, swelling around the site of injury. A state of shock or acute blood loss may develop. For cut, chopped and stab wounds
  11. First aid for frostbite
    Frostbite is tissue damage due to exposure to low temperature. Frostbite can occur at not very low temperatures, but in the presence of wind, high humidity, wet clothes or shoes, alcohol intoxication, blood loss. When frostbite at first there is a feeling of cold, the affected place becomes white, then numb. First aid in the cold: a frostbitten nose or
  12. First aid for electrical injuries
    Damage caused by an electric current or by lightning (a discharge of atmospheric electricity) is called an electric shock. Electratrauma causes local and general disorders in the body. Local changes are manifested by burns of tissue at the points of entry and exit of electric current, often very deep, of 3-4 degrees of weight. Common phenomena - convulsive muscle contractions, loss of consciousness, depression
  13. First aid for traumatic shock
    Any injury causes not only local tissue damage in the area of ​​the impact of the injury, but also a general response of the human body, which manifests itself in the form of traumatic shock. Shock is a protective reaction of the body, aimed at its survival. Traumatic shock - the general reaction of the body to pain and blood loss in case of massive injury and intoxication. Mainly manifested
  14. First aid for burns
    Burn - tissue damage caused by high temperature, electrical current, acids, alkalis, or ionizing radiation. Thermal, electrical, chemical, and radiation burns are distinguished accordingly. Thermal burns are most common, they account for 90-95% of all burns. The severity of a burn depends on the depth of tissue damage and on the area of ​​its spread.
  15. First aid for drowning
    The complete cessation of oxygen in the lungs is called asphyxia. The death at the same time comes quickly, within 2 - 3 min. There are two types of drowning: true or blue drowning, in which water fills the lungs, and pale drowning, when water does not penetrate into the lungs. The blue type of drowning is observed in the warm season when bathing in a fresh water pond, river, lake. Not immediately drowning
    There are thermal (exposure to high temperatures), chemical (exposure to chemicals), burns, burns from the sun. Depending on the depth of tissue damage, burns are divided into four grades: Grade 1 - defeat of the surface layer of the skin. Manifested by severe pain, redness and swelling. Inflammation subsides on the 4-5th day. 2nd degree - more defeat
    Strangulation occurs in case of an accident or suicide attempt. In this case, asphyxia occurs as a result of compression of the airways (larynx, trachea), and the blood supply to the brain is also disturbed due to clamping of blood vessels. Help is effective in the first minutes when the victim is still in a state of clinical death. Resuscitation events are being held -
  18. First aid for fractures
    Fracture - a partial or complete violation of the integrity of the bone, caused by the influence of mechanical force on it. Signs of a limb fracture - pain when moving, dysfunction, bruising, swelling at the fracture site, deformity at the fracture site, shortening or curvature of the limb, incorrect position of the peripheral part of the limb, abnormal mobility of fragments. Fractures
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