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First aid for electrical injuries

Damage caused by an electric current or by lightning (a discharge of atmospheric electricity) is called an electric shock. Electratrauma causes local and general disorders in the body. Local changes are manifested by burns of tissue at the points of entry and exit of electric current, often very deep, of 3-4 degrees of weight. Common phenomena - convulsive contractions of muscles, loss of consciousness, depression of cardiac activity, respiratory arrest. Death due to electric shock occurs from sudden cardiac arrest (80%), brain edema, spasm of the respiratory muscles, damage to internal organs, burns.

When an electric shock occurs, there is a rare human condition - imaginary death or electric lethargy. In external manifestations, this state is similar to clinical death, but unlike it, the muscle fibers of the heart during imaginary death are reduced, but only each fiber in its own rhythm, without creating a general powerful contraction of the entire cardiac muscle. Therefore, it seems that the heart has stopped. This circumstance dictates the tactics of first aid, in which resuscitation must be carried out for a very long time, until admission to the hospital or the appearance of signs of biological death.

First aid. Before touching the victim, it must be de-energized. Most reliably turn off the switch or appliance from the network. If this cannot be done quickly, it is necessary to remove the wire from the victim with a wooden stick or a plastic ruler. If the wire is clamped in a cramped arm, it should be cut with a knife or cut with scissors with insulated handles.

In the absence of a pulse in the carotid artery, it is necessary to proceed with resuscitation.
With the saved pulse in the carotid artery, but the lack of consciousness, it is necessary to take several breaths using the mouth-to-mouth method and, with the appearance of spontaneous breathing, turn the victim to the stomach. For the prevention of cerebral edema, the head of the victim must be covered with ice bubbles.

Another possible variant of the impact of an electric current on a person is a lightning strike, the action of which is similar to a very high voltage electrical current. In some cases, the affected person will instantly die from respiratory paralysis and cardiac arrest. Red streaks appear on the skin. However, lightning damage is often reduced only to a strong stunning. In such cases, the victim loses consciousness, his skin turns pale and cold, the pulse is barely palpable, breathing is shallow, barely noticeable.

Saving the lives of those affected by lightning depends on the speed of first aid. The victim should immediately begin to undergo artificial respiration and continue it until he begins to breathe on his own.

When struck by lightning, first aid is similar to that described above. Strongly unacceptable hit by lightning to dig into the ground.

To prevent exposure to lightning, a number of measures must be observed during rain and thunderstorms:

• during a thunderstorm it is impossible to shelter from rain under a tree, as the trees “attract” to themselves the discharge of lightning;

• during thunderstorms, high elevations should be avoided, since in these places the probability of a lightning strike is higher;

• all residential and administrative premises should be equipped with lightning conductors, the purpose of which is to prevent lightning from entering the building.

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First aid for electrical injuries

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  8. First aid for drowning
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