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First Aid for Poisoning

Toxic substances (OM) include chemical compounds that can infect unprotected people and animals, leading to their death or incapacitation. The action of OM can be based on ingestion through the respiratory system (inhalation effect), penetration through the skin and mucous membranes (resorption), or through the gastrointestinal tract with the use of contaminated food and water. Poisoning substances act in drip-liquid form, in the form of aerosols, steam or gas.

As a rule, OM are an integral part of chemical weapons. Chemical weapons are understood to mean military means, the damaging effect of which is based on the toxic effects of OM.

The toxic substances that make up chemical weapons have a number of features. They are capable of causing mass destruction of people and animals in a short time, destroying plants, infecting large volumes of surface air, which leads to the defeat of people on the ground and uncovered. For a long time, they can retain their damaging effect. Such OMs are delivered to their destinations in several ways: with the help of chemical bombs, airborne spray devices, aerosol generators, missiles, rocket and artillery shells and mines.

First aid for the defeat of OS should be carried out in the form of self-help and mutual assistance or specialized services. When providing first aid, you must:

1) immediately put on a gas mask on the victim (or replace the damaged gas mask with a working one) to terminate the effect of the damaging factor on the respiratory system;

2) quickly inject the victim with an antidote (a specific drug) using a syringe tube;

3) carry out the sanitary treatment of all exposed areas of the skin of the victim with a special liquid from an individual anti-chemical package.

With the introduction of an antidote, it is best to inject into the buttock (upper outer quadrant), the anterolateral thigh and the outer surface of the shoulder.
In an emergency at the site of the lesion, the antidote is administered using a syringe tube and through clothing. After the injection, you need to attach to the victim’s clothes or put an empty syringe tube into the right pocket, which will indicate that the antidote has been introduced.

Sanitary treatment of the skin of the victim is carried out with liquid from an individual anti-chemical package (PPI) directly at the site of the lesion, as this allows you to quickly stop exposure to toxic substances through unprotected skin.

If OM is sprayed in an aerosol manner, the entire surface of the clothing will be infected. Therefore, after leaving the affected area, clothing should be removed immediately, since the OM contained on it can cause damage due to evaporation in the breathing zone, and the penetration of fumes into the undersuit space.

In case of damage to the OS of the nerve agent, the victim must be immediately evacuated from the source of infection to a safe area. During the evacuation of the affected, it is necessary to monitor their condition. To prevent seizures, repeated administration of the antidote is allowed.

If vomiting occurs in the affected person, turn his head to the side and pull off the lower part of the gas mask, then put on the gas mask again. If necessary, replace the contaminated gas mask with a new one.

At low ambient temperatures, it is important to protect the valve box of the gas mask from freezing. To do this, it is covered with a cloth and systematically heated.

In case of defeat of OM of asphyxiating action (sarin, carbon monoxide, etc.), the victims undergo artificial respiration.
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First Aid for Poisoning

  1. Sanitary assessment of meat and other products in case of damage by their radioactive and toxic substances
    The purpose of the lesson: To study the sanitary assessment of livestock products affected by radioactive and toxic substances. Tasks: 1. To get acquainted with the measures taken with animals when they are hit by nuclear weapons 2. To learn the methods of decontamination of livestock products 3. To get acquainted with the measures taken with animals when they are infected their toxic substances
    Radioactive substances can enter the body in three ways: with food and water into the gastrointestinal tract, through the lungs and skin. The most important and potentially dangerous is the inhalation of radionuclides. This is facilitated by the huge respiratory surface of the alveoli, whose area is ~ 100 m2 (50 times> more than the surface of the skin). Air radioactivity may be due to
    For the first time, chemical warfare agents were used by the German military command against the Anglo-French forces on April 22, 1915 in Belgium, along the Ypres River. Then, from the German side, a strip of whitish-greenish fog appeared, which covered the French troops with a silent giant wave. Soldiers and officers in the trenches and nearby animals suddenly began to choke,
    This group of toxic substances includes chemical compounds with high volatility. When inhaled, lung tissue is affected - pulmonary edema develops. Due to the fact that these substances are relatively low toxic, none of them are in service with modern armies. However, they, in particular phosgene, are considered reserve OM and how volatile substances can affect
  5. LESSON 10 First aid for acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
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    Nervous toxic agents are currently the main chemical weapon. They have high toxicity, easily penetrate the body of animals through the respiratory tract, intact skin and digestive tract, without causing an irritating effect at the site of penetration. Their action is manifested extremely quickly, causing selective
    Most dangerous marine animals are found in tropical areas and warm areas of temperate zones. Many sharks, stingrays, poisonous reef fish, jellyfish, sea urchins and mollusks live here. The defeat of a person occurs when bathing, fishing and cutting fish, eating it. Poisonous substances, as a rule, are contained in special glands, the secret of which is introduced into the wounds inflicted by the rays
    This group of OM combines a variety of chemical compounds both in terms of toxicity and chemical structure. All of them are high-speed volatile substances that cause the death of animals and humans as a result of a violation of the respiratory function of the body. They do not act locally on the organs and tissues through which they penetrate. They enter the body mainly through organs.
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  10. LESSON 4 First aid after drowning, electric trauma, lightning strike. The practice of caring for the sick (setting cans and mustard plasters).
    Purpose: To check students' knowledge on topics 1-3 (conducting final test work). To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (drowning, lightning, electric shock). Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 1-3. 2. What are the features of first aid for
  11. Therapeutic tactics in emergency situations with exposure to chemical poisonous substances (AHOV)
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  12. LESSON 5 First aid after thermal, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assisting in the violation of cerebral circulation.
    Purpose: To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (heat stroke, sunstroke), in cases of cerebrovascular accident and decreased vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
  13. First aid for injuries. Basic concepts of emergency care and requirements for it
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  14. SESSION 9 First aid for febrile illnesses. Thermometry technique. Emergency care for infectious diseases, their prevention. Patient care (gastric lavage, enemas). Curation of patients.
    Purpose: To teach students the diffdiagnosis of febrile conditions and the rules of first aid. To acquaint with the main infectious diseases and measures for their prevention. To teach practical patient care skills and the basics of supervision. Test questions 1. What is called fever? The clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the method of thermometry.
  15. SESSION 16 First aid in case of burns, frostbite, general cooling. The composition of the first aid kit, the appointment of its main components. Care for the seriously ill and its hygiene.
    Objective: To teach students to determine the degree of burns and frostbite, to effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students should receive practical skills in caring for seriously ill patients, be able to compose a first-aid kit for first aid, and know the purpose of its main components. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 15-16. 2. The definition of "burn".
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    First aid for burns is provided at the scene. 1. Elimination of the action of the damaging factor. It is necessary to remove the victim from the fire zone, extinguish burning clothing on it, quickly cool the burned surface. The best way to extinguish burning clothes is to use a fire nightmare or its analogues from improvised means (the fabric should not be combustible!). Highly effective
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