Licensed books on medicine
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First aid for the defeat of poisonous substances
Toxic agents (S) include chemical compounds that can affect unprotected people and animals, leading to their death or disabling them. The action of agents can be based on ingestion through the respiratory organs (inhalation exposure), penetration through the skin and mucous membranes (resorption), or through the gastrointestinal tract when using contaminated food and water. Toxic substances act in a droplet-liquid form, in the form of aerosols, vapor or gas.
As a rule, chemical agents are an integral part of chemical weapons. Chemical weapons are combat weapons, the damaging effects of which are based on the toxic effects of agents.
Toxic substances that are part of chemical weapons, have a number of features. They can in a short time cause massive damage to people and animals, destroy plants, infect large amounts of ground-level air, which leads to the defeat of people on the ground and uncovered people. For a long time, they can maintain their damaging effects. Delivery of such agents to destinations is carried out in several ways: with the help of chemical bombs, poured aviation instruments, aerosol generators, rockets, rockets and artillery shells and mines.
The first medical aid in case of damage to a chemical agent must be carried out in the order of self-help and mutual assistance or specialized services. When rendering first aid it is necessary:
1) immediately put a gas mask on the injured person (or replace the damaged gas mask with a working one) to stop the effect of the damaging factor on the respiratory organs;
2) quickly inject the affected antidote (a specific drug) with a syringe;
3) to sanitize all exposed skin areas of the affected person with a special liquid from an individual anti-chemical package.
With the introduction of antidote best to make a shot in the buttock (upper outer quadrant), anterolateral surface of the thigh and the outer surface of the shoulder.
In an emergency situation at the site of the lesion, the antidote is injected with a syringe tube and through clothing. After the injection, it is necessary to attach the victim to the clothes or to put an empty syringe tube in the right pocket, which will indicate that the antidote has been injected.
Sanitary treatment of the skin of the victim is carried out with liquid from an individual anti-chemical package (IPP) directly at the site of injury, as this allows you to quickly terminate exposure to toxic substances through unprotected skin.
If the agent is sprayed by an aerosol method, the entire surface of the clothing will be contaminated. Therefore, after leaving the affected area, you should immediately take off your clothes, since the OM contained on it can cause injuries due to evaporation into the breathing zone and the penetration of vapors into the sub-costume space.
If a neuroparalytic agent is affected, the victim must be immediately evacuated from the source of infection to a safe area. During the evacuation of the affected it is necessary to monitor their condition. To prevent seizures, reintroduction of the antidote is allowed.
If the affected vomiting occurs, his head must be turned to the side and the lower part of the gas mask mask is pulled off, then the gas mask is put on again. If necessary, replace a contaminated gas mask with a new one.
At negative ambient temperatures, it is important to prevent the gas valve box from freezing. To do this, it is covered with a cloth and systematically warmed.
With the defeat of the choking agent (sarin, carbon monoxide, etc.), the victim is given artificial respiration.
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First aid for the defeat of poisonous substances
- Sanitary assessment of meat and other products in case of their damage by radioactive and toxic substances
The purpose of the lesson: To study the sanitary assessment of livestock products affected by radioactive and toxic substances. Objectives: 1. Familiarize yourself with the activities carried out with animals with the destruction of their nuclear weapons 2. Study the methods of decontamination of livestock products 3. Familiarize with the activities carried out with animals with the defeat their toxic substances
- VETERINARY AND SANITARY EXAMINATION AT RADIATION DAMAGE AND ACTION OF POISONING SUBSTANCES
Radioactive substances can enter the body in three ways: with food and water in the gastrointestinal tract, through the lungs and skin. The most important and potentially dangerous is inhalation intake of radionuclides. This is facilitated by the enormous respiratory surface of the alveoli, whose area is ~ 100 m2 (50 times more than the surface of the skin). Air radioactivity may be due
- DEFEATING ANIMALS WITH POISONING SUBSTANCES
For the first time, combat toxic agents were used by the German military command against the Anglo-French forces on April 22, 1915 in Belgium, along the Ypres River. Then, from the German positions, a band of whitish-greenish fog appeared, which covered the French troops with a silent giant wave. Soldiers and officers in the trenches and nearby animals suddenly began to choke,
- INFECTION OF ANIMALS TO STORNING POISONING SUBSTANCES
To this group of toxic substances include chemical compounds with high volatility. When they are inhaled, the lung tissue is affected - pulmonary edema develops. Due to the fact that these substances are relatively low-toxic, none of them is in service with modern armies. However, they, in particular phosgene, are considered reserve agents, and how volatile substances can affect
- SESSION 10 First aid for acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
Objective: To teach students diagnosis and first aid for acute poisoning. To characterize the main drugs used in the provision of emergency assistance for poisoning. Test questions 1. What is called poisoning, what kind of poisoning does it take, what usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of predominant action of substances. What substances belong to these types? 3. Rules
- DEFEAT OF ANIMALS WITH POISONING SUBSTANCES OF NERVOUS PARALYTIC ACTION
Nerve toxic agents are currently the main chemical weapons. They have high toxicity, easily penetrate into the body of animals through the respiratory tract, intact skin and the digestive tract, without causing irritation in places of penetration. Their action is manifested extremely quickly, causing selective
- FIRST AID IN DAMAGE TO HAZARDOUS SEA ANIMALS
Most dangerous marine animals are found in tropical zones and warm areas of temperate zones. Many sharks, rays, poisonous reef fish, jellyfish, sea urchins and mollusks live here. The defeat of a person occurs when bathing, fishing and cutting fish, eating it for food. Toxic substances are usually contained in special glands, the secret of which is introduced into the wounds caused by rays
- DEFEATING ANIMALS WITH POISONING SUBSTANCES OF GENERAL TOXIC ACTION
This group of agents combines a variety of chemical compounds both in toxic action and in chemical structure. All of them are fast-acting volatile substances that cause the death of animals and humans as a result of impaired respiratory function of the body. They do not act locally on the organs and tissues through which they penetrate. They enter the body mainly through the organs
- DEFEATING ANIMALS WITH POISONING SUBSTANCES
These substances affect animals in the drip-liquid and vapor state. They are quickly absorbed through the mucous membranes and skin, and thus have a general effect on the body, and in places of initial exposure cause inflammatory necrotic tissue damage. The use of these substances for a long time pollutes the terrain and objects on it. Main
- SESSION 4 First aid for drowning, electric shock, lightning. Practice in patient care (setting cans and mustard plaster).
Objective: To test students' knowledge on topics 1-3 (conducting the final test). Teach students to assist victims in accidents caused by exposure to the environment (drowning, lightning, electrical shock). Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 1-3. 2. What are the features of first aid at
- Medical tactics in case of emergency situations with exposure to chemical agents (AX)
At present, tens of thousands of different chemicals are used in industry and agriculture. Some of them are toxic and harmful. Any emergency situations - leakage, pipeline breakthrough, destruction of capacity, fire, explosion - can lead to the release into the atmosphere and on the ground of a large amount of chemical toxic substances. According to the degree of toxicity, these substances are divided into
- SESSION 5 First aid before thermal, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assistance in violation of cerebral circulation.
Objective: To teach students to assist victims in accidents caused by exposure to the environment (heat, sunstroke), in violation of cerebral circulation and reduction of vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
- First aid for injuries. Basic concepts about emergency care and requirements for it
The restoration of health, and sometimes the preservation of life, may depend to a large extent on timely first aid. "Emergency medical care" is a broad concept and includes the elimination or weakening of the impact of harmful factors that aggravate the development of the disease, and measures to restore the health of the victim. Emergency medical assistance in the military
- SESSION 9 The first pre-medical aid in cases of fever. Thermometry technique. Emergency care for infectious diseases, their prevention. Patient care (gastric lavage, enema). Curation of patients.
Objective: To teach students how to diagnose febrile states and how to provide first aid. To acquaint with the main infectious diseases and measures for their prevention. To teach practical skills in patient care and the basics of supervision. Test questions 1. What is called fever? Clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the method of thermometry.
- SESSION 16 First aid for burns, frostbite, general cooling. The composition of the first aid kit, the purpose of its main components. Care for seriously ill patients and their hygiene.
Objective: To teach students to determine the degree of burns and frostbite, effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students should acquire practical skills in the care of severely ill patients, be able to draw up a first-aid kit for first aid and know the purpose of its main components. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 15-16. 2. Definition of "burn".
- FIRST AID FOR ELECTRIC INJURY
First aid for the defeat of electricity should be immediately, at the scene. First of all, it is necessary to release the victim from the action of electric current, since, due to loss of consciousness or convulsive muscle contraction, he often cannot get off the wire himself. It is important to remember about the danger of electric shock of the rescuer. Necessary if this
- FIRST AID FOR BURNS
First aid for burns is at the scene. 1. Elimination of the effect of the damaging factor. Remove the injured person from the fire area, extinguish burning clothing on him, quickly cool the burned surface. The best way to extinguish burning clothes is to use a fire stove or its counterparts from improvised means (the fabric should not be flammable!). Highly efficient
- FIRST AID FOR POISONING
Poisoning is a health disorder that occurs when the body interacts with the incoming poison, which can be any substance that has a harmful effect, and sometimes even leads to death. The number of acute poisonings is constantly increasing, which is associated with the intensive development of the chemical industry and the use of a wide range of chemicals in everyday life, industry,