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First Aid for Poisoning
Toxic substances (OM) include chemical compounds that can infect unprotected people and animals, leading to their death or incapacitation. The action of OM can be based on ingestion through the respiratory system (inhalation effect), penetration through the skin and mucous membranes (resorption), or through the gastrointestinal tract with the use of contaminated food and water. Poisoning substances act in drip-liquid form, in the form of aerosols, steam or gas.
As a rule, OM are an integral part of chemical weapons. Chemical weapons are understood to mean military means, the damaging effect of which is based on the toxic effects of OM.
The toxic substances that make up chemical weapons have a number of features. They are capable of causing mass destruction of people and animals in a short time, destroying plants, infecting large volumes of surface air, which leads to the defeat of people on the ground and uncovered. For a long time, they can retain their damaging effect. Such OMs are delivered to their destinations in several ways: with the help of chemical bombs, airborne spray devices, aerosol generators, missiles, rocket and artillery shells and mines.
First aid for the defeat of OS should be carried out in the form of self-help and mutual assistance or specialized services. When providing first aid, you must:
1) immediately put on a gas mask on the victim (or replace the damaged gas mask with a working one) to terminate the effect of the damaging factor on the respiratory system;
2) quickly inject the victim with an antidote (a specific drug) using a syringe tube;
3) carry out the sanitary treatment of all exposed areas of the skin of the victim with a special liquid from an individual anti-chemical package.
With the introduction of an antidote, it is best to inject into the buttock (upper outer quadrant), the anterolateral thigh and the outer surface of the shoulder.
In an emergency at the site of the lesion, the antidote is administered using a syringe tube and through clothing. After the injection, you need to attach to the victim’s clothes or put an empty syringe tube into the right pocket, which will indicate that the antidote has been introduced.
Sanitary treatment of the skin of the victim is carried out with liquid from an individual anti-chemical package (PPI) directly at the site of the lesion, as this allows you to quickly stop exposure to toxic substances through unprotected skin.
If OM is sprayed in an aerosol manner, the entire surface of the clothing will be infected. Therefore, after leaving the affected area, clothing should be removed immediately, since the OM contained on it can cause damage due to evaporation in the breathing zone, and the penetration of fumes into the undersuit space.
In case of damage to the OS of the nerve agent, the victim must be immediately evacuated from the source of infection to a safe area. During the evacuation of the affected, it is necessary to monitor their condition. To prevent seizures, repeated administration of the antidote is allowed.
If vomiting occurs in the affected person, turn his head to the side and pull off the lower part of the gas mask, then put on the gas mask again. If necessary, replace the contaminated gas mask with a new one.
At low ambient temperatures, it is important to protect the valve box of the gas mask from freezing. To do this, it is covered with a cloth and systematically heated.
In case of defeat of OM of asphyxiating action (sarin, carbon monoxide, etc.), the victims undergo artificial respiration.
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First Aid for Poisoning
- Sanitary assessment of meat and other products in case of damage by their radioactive and toxic substances
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- VETERINARY AND SANITARY EXPERTISE DURING RADIATION DAMAGE AND ACTION OF POISONING MATTERS
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- DAMAGE TO ANIMALS
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- DAMAGE OF ANIMALS BY SUGARITABLE POISTS
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- DAMAGE OF ANIMALS TOXIC SUBSTANCES
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- DEFEAT OF ANIMALS BY POISONES OF THE SKIN-EXTERNAL ACTION
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- Therapeutic tactics in emergency situations with exposure to chemical poisonous substances (AHOV)
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Purpose: To teach students the diffdiagnosis of febrile conditions and the rules of first aid. To acquaint with the main infectious diseases and measures for their prevention. To teach practical patient care skills and the basics of supervision. Test questions 1. What is called fever? The clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the method of thermometry.
- SESSION 16 First aid in case of burns, frostbite, general cooling. The composition of the first aid kit, the appointment of its main components. Care for the seriously ill and its hygiene.
Objective: To teach students to determine the degree of burns and frostbite, to effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students should receive practical skills in caring for seriously ill patients, be able to compose a first-aid kit for first aid, and know the purpose of its main components. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 15-16. 2. The definition of "burn".
- FIRST AID IN ELECTRIC INJURY
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- FIRST AID FOR BURNS
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- FIRST AID IN POISONING
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