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The concept of frostbite, their classification and first aid

Frostbite - damage to body tissues due to exposure to low temperatures. Frostbite is promoted by moisture, increased wind, exhaustion, vitamin deficiency, tissue compression, anemia. In the development of frostbite allocate pre-reactive and reactive periods. In the prereactive period (under the influence of cold), there is a violation of microcirculation, accompanied by vasospasm. It is manifested by a sharp blanching of the skin and a decrease in its sensitivity. In the reactive period (with warming), tissue swelling and pain appear, it becomes possible to determine the degree of frostbite. Depending on the depth of damage, there are 4 degrees:

1 degree. The skin is bluish, edematous; concerned with pain and itching, which go away after a few days. Hypersensitivity to cold remains for a long time, sometimes even a slight cooling again causes puffiness and reddening of the previously frozen part.

II degree. The appearance of bubbles with light content due to the separation of the superficially damaged skin layer is characteristic.

III and IV degree. The formation of blisters with blood contents, there is a depletion of the skin at full depth (III degree), subcutaneous fat and deep-lying tissues (IV degree).
Often this frostbite is accompanied by a general disease, a profound circulatory disorder, the affected part of the body dramatically swells, becomes dark, and gangrene can develop.

First aid

1. Remove the impact of the damaging factor.

2. Put on an aseptic bandage and wrap the affected part of the body.

3. Give hot drink.

4. To conduct anesthesia.

5. Immobilize damaged limbs.

6. Deliver the victim to the hospital.

General cooling, freezing develops with prolonged exposure to cold. When the temperature drops to 35-33 ° C, adynamia, lethargy, apathy occurs. At 32-29 ° С, stupor is observed, consciousness is saved, the victim answers questions after a while, chills, drowsiness. At 29-25 ° С - convulsive stage, contractures appear (bent limbs cannot be straightened), at 25-22 ° С - death occurs.

First aid

1. Warming the body in the bathroom.

2. Pain relief.

3. Warm drink.

4. Immobilization.

5. Delivery to the hospital.
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The concept of frostbite, their classification and first aid

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