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The Consequences of Drinking Small Dox Alcoholic Beverages
Let us consider the effect of the so-called small doses of alcohol on the human body, and most importantly, the consequences of their use.
The results of special experiments to study the effect of small doses of alcohol on non-drinkers, on changes in mental and physiological functions are noteworthy. For example, in experiments it was found that taking 30 g of alcohol reduced the effectiveness of mental work in subjects by 12–26%, it is typical that such a deterioration was noted in the next 1-2 days. It turned out that even the smallest doses of alcohol lead to a significant deterioration in the quality of attention, and with the adoption of 30 g, the number of omissions in reading the text increased by 15 times, other errors - by 2 times.
At the same time, a comparison of objective indicators of mental performance and subjective sensation made it possible to establish that taking small doses (15-30 g) of alcohol by healthy subjects subjectively leads to a feeling of a rise in working capacity, while objective indicators (various psychological tests) indicate a decrease in concentration , the deterioration of mental abilities, the quality of conclusions and judgments. This is a natural deterioration in the process of thinking, and above all, creative.
The effect of alcohol on creative processes can be illustrated by this fact. For example, one of the chess masters experienced the effect of alcohol on purpose, experimentally, in two sessions of playing simultaneously on 15 boards. For the first time, in the control session, being absolutely sober, he won 10 games, and 5 tied. In the second session, experimental, after taking 75 g of cognac, he won only 5 games. 8 brought in a draw, and 2 - lost with the same composition of playing opponents.
A similar conclusion about the negative effects of small doses of alcohol is confirmed by a variety of experiments, in which a number of specific patterns were revealed. For example, in one of them, subjects were allowed to take small doses of alcohol (from 7 to 60 g) in order to study the changes in the speed of associative processes, reading, adding up single digits and other indicators of thinking against the background of their influence. It turned out that although the reactions arose in many cases in a timely manner and even somewhat faster, but much more often than normal - without exposure to alcohol, they were erroneous. It turned out that a slight reduction in reaction time after taking small doses of alcohol is achieved precisely by reducing the quality and correctness of the actions taken.
The results of these studies revealed the following regularity: the negative impact of small doses of alcohol increases with the complexity of the nature of the work, and the negative effect of their intake is higher, the more creative the work is in nature. Subsequent studies have confirmed the fact that small doses of alcohol have a greater negative effect on the results of creatively active work than on the performance of simple mechanical actions.
The negative effect of small doses of alcohol on the processes of attention and creative activity as a whole is manifested not only during intoxication: they have a pronounced effect after action.
Nevertheless, many are convinced that small doses of alcohol “stimulate” mental functions and increase mental performance. Why are they convinced of this? Yes, because, as a rule, they subjectively note an increase in working ability. But the data of experiments directly contradict their subjective feelings.
Small doses of alcohol have a negative effect not only on memory, attention, thinking, the creative process as a whole, but also on the performance of simple actions, in particular, on the process of coordination of movements, perception and orientation. According to studies, only one beer mug drunk (and depending on the type of beer it contains from 1 to 30 g of pure alcohol) noticeably slows down both the speed of thinking and the speed of motor reactions. When recording brain biocurrents at this time, significant deviations from the norm are detected.
After taking 7.5-10 g of alcohol, a short acceleration of movement is noted.
However, along with this shortening of the motor reaction time, the quality, accuracy and proportionality of movements are reduced. This is confirmed by foreign researchers.
Alcohol negatively affects various types of perception. So, as a result of special experiments, it was found that, normally, 0.19 seconds are required for the perception of auditory and visual sensations. After intake of 60-100 g of alcohol by healthy, non-drinking people, the perception time of these irritants increases already to 0.297 seconds, that is, 1.5 times. Taking even small doses of alcohol slows down the perception of pain stimuli. On average, after taking 60 g of alcohol, the time of perception of pain increases almost 2 times.
Thus, taking non-drinkers even small, it would seem, doses of alcoholic beverages significantly reduces their quality, accuracy, coordination of movements, increases the time of motor reactions and the time of perception of various irritants. The severity of such manifestations is associated with the amount of alcohol taken, its concentration in the blood.
Numerous medical and laboratory studies have revealed correlations between the concentration of alcohol in the blood and the nature of changes in various physiological reactions and human behavior when intoxicated.
So, if the concentration of alcohol in the blood is 0.21-0.4 g / l, a person has a lack of coordination of movements. The simplest finger-nasal test (with closed eyes you need to touch the tip of your nose with your finger) is performed by him with an error. The threshold of pain sensitivity rises.
If the concentration of alcohol in the blood is 0.41-0.6 g / l, then there is a significant deterioration in visual perception. At the same time, in particular, individual flickers cease to differ and are perceived by man as a constant source of light.
The concentration of alcohol in the blood, equal to 0.61-0.8 g / l, leads to a change in binocular vision, providing spatial orientation of the person. At the same concentration of alcohol in the blood, instability of the posture occurs in a fixed position, for example, if the heels are moved together, the arms are extended forward, the head is slightly tilted back and the eyes are closed. It is not surprising that with such a concentration of alcohol in the blood, a person makes violations in driving.
If the concentration of alcohol in the blood rises to 1.01–1.5 g / l., Impaired coordination of all movements become pronounced. The subject, for example, cannot bend without losing stability, cannot immediately raise a coin from the floor without making erroneous movements. All types of perception - auditory, visual, painful - are significantly slowed down.
When the concentration of alcohol in the blood reaches 2.01-3.0 g / l, a person completely forgets the entire period of intoxication, does not control his behavior. At a concentration of 3.01-5.0 g / l of alcohol in the blood, acute alcohol poisoning develops, accompanied by an unconscious state and threatening paralysis of the respiratory center, leading to death.
When studying the time of choice and decision-making by special psychophysiological methods, it was shown that in normal conditions, a healthy non-drinking person needs 100-150 milliseconds for an adequate reaction, organizing an executive team and transferring it to the motor centers of the brain. But in the experiment, the recognition of the object and the motor reaction increased so much after the subjects took 60 g of vodka. These experiments made it possible to establish that the decision-making process is substantially disturbed even when exposed to small doses of alcohol. In this case, violations in the central link, which combines perception and motor reactions of the nervous system into a single mechanism, lead to an increase in decision-making time.
Any creative process consists of a series of successively changing labor actions, operations, each time requiring the adoption of a decision. And the loss of hundreds of milliseconds on each of them negatively affects the overall volume and quality of the work performed.
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The Consequences of Drinking Small Dox Alcoholic Beverages
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