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The subject of Valeology is man. Bone system and its functions

A person has more than 200 bones (85 paired and 36 unpaired) which, depending on their shape and functions, are divided into: tubular (they perform mainly protective and supporting functions - ribs, sternum, vertebrae, etc.); flat (bones of the skull, pelvis); mixed (base of the skull).

The composition of the bone includes organic and inorganic substances. The elasticity, elasticity of the bones depends on the presence of organic substances in them, and the hardness is provided by mineral salts. The growth and formation of bones is significantly influenced by socio-environmental factors: nutrition, environment, etc. The lack of vitamins C, D, potassium and phosphorus makes them more fragile.

The human skeleton consists of: a spine, consisting of 33-34 vertebrae, and has five sections: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5), sacral (5), coccygeal (4-5).

The functions of the musculoskeletal system. The skeleton and muscles are the supporting structures and organs of human movement. They perform a protective function, limiting the cavity in which the internal organs are located. So, the heart and lungs are protected by the chest and muscles of the chest and back; abdominal organs (stomach, intestines, kidneys) - by the lower spine, pelvic bones, muscles of the back and abdomen; the brain is located in the cranial cavity, and the spinal cord in the spinal canal.

Bone. The bones of the human skeleton are formed by bone tissue - a type of connective tissue. Bone tissue is equipped with nerves and blood vessels. Its cells have processes. The intercellular substance makes up 2/3 of the bone tissue. It is solid and dense, in its properties resembles stone.

Bone cells and their processes are surrounded by tiny "tubules" filled with intercellular fluid. Through the intercellular fluid of the tubules, bone cells are nourished and breathed.

The structure of the bones. The size and shape of the bones of the human skeleton are different. Bones can be long and short.

Long bones are also called tubular. They are hollow. This structure of long bones provides both their strength and lightness. It is known that a metal or plastic tube is almost as strong as a solid rod of the same material equal in length and diameter to it. In the cavities of the tubular bones is a connective tissue rich in fat - yellow bone marrow.

The heads of the tubular bones are formed by a spongy substance. Bone platelets cross in the directions in which the bones experience the greatest tension or compression. This structure of the spongy substance also provides bone strength and lightness. The spaces between the bone plates are filled with red bone marrow, which is a blood-forming organ.

Short bones are formed mainly by spongy matter. Flat bones, such as shoulder blades, ribs, have the same structure.


The surface of the bones is covered with periosteum. This is a thin but dense layer of connective tissue fused with bone. Blood vessels and nerves pass in the periosteum. The ends of the bones covered with cartilage do not have a periosteum.

Bone growth. In childhood and adolescence, human bones grow in length and thickness. The formation of the skeleton ends at 22-25 years. The growth of bone in thickness is due to the fact that cells of the inner surface of the periosteum divide. At the same time, new layers of cells form on the surface of the bone, and intercellular substance around these cells.

Bones grow in length due to cell division of the cartilaginous tissue covering the ends of the bones. Bone growth is regulated by biologically active substances, such as growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. With an insufficient amount of this hormone, the child grows very slowly. Such people grow up no higher than children of 5-6 years of age. These are dwarfs.

If in childhood the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a giant grows up - a person taller than 2 m and above.

With increased pituitary function in an adult, some parts of the body, such as fingers, toes, nose, disproportionately grow.

In adults, the bones do not lengthen and do not thicken, but the replacement of the old bone substance with a new one continues throughout life. Bone substance is able to rebuild under the influence of the load acting on the skeleton. For example, the bones of the big toes, on which the ballerina rests, are thickened, their mass is facilitated by the expansion of the internal cavity.

The greater the load on the skeleton, the more active are the processes of renewal and the stronger the bone substance. Properly organized physical labor, physical education at a time when the skeleton is still being formed, contribute to its development and strengthening.

The composition of the bone. Bones are formed by organic and inorganic substances. The value of mineral and organic substances is easy to find out by doing a simple experiment. If the bone is calcined for a long time, then water is removed from it, and organic compounds are burned. When this is done carefully, the bone does not lose its shape, but becomes so fragile that when touched it crumbles into small, solid particles consisting of inorganic substances. Inorganic substances give bones hardness.

Inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate can also be removed from the bone. For this, the bone is kept for 24 hours in a 10% HC1 solution. Calcium salts gradually dissolve, and the bone becomes so flexible that it can be knotted. Organic compounds give bones flexibility and resilience.

The combination of the hardness of inorganic compounds with the elasticity of organic provides bone strength. The strongest bones of an adult, but not an old person.
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The subject of Valeology is man. Bone system and its functions

  1. LECTURE №3 SUBJECT OF STUDYING VALEOLOGY - MAN. BONE SYSTEM AND ITS FUNCTIONS
    LECTURE №3 SUBJECT OF STUDYING VALEOLOGY - MAN. BONE SYSTEM AND ITS
  2. The concept of valeology. Subject of study, value.
    At the beginning of the 80s of our century, the domestic scientist, doctor of medical sciences I. I. Brekhman introduced the term "valeology". By valeology (from lat. Valeo - to be healthy, hello) was meant the science of the preventive and health-improving foundations of medicine, the ways and methods of maintaining and strengthening health. Appearing as an integral entity born at the intersection of medicine, biology,
  3. The concept of valeology. Subject matter
    At the beginning of the 80s of our century, the domestic scientist, doctor of medical sciences I. I. Brekhman introduced the term "valeology". By valeology (from Lat. Valeo - to be healthy, hello) was meant the science of the preventive and health-improving foundations of medicine, ways and methods of maintaining and strengthening health. Appearing as an integral entity born at the intersection of medicine, biology,
  4. The subject and tasks of valeology
    The central problem of valeology is the attitude to individual health and the education of a health culture in the process of individual development of an individual. The subject of valeology is individual health and human health reserves, as well as a healthy lifestyle. The object of valeology is practically healthy, as well as a person who is in a state of pre-disease in everything unlimited
  5. Subject: The immune system of the human body and its main functions
    The structure and functions of the immune system. Central organs of the immune system: bone marrow, thymus gland, Fabricius bag (in birds). Peripheral organs of the immune system: spleen, lymph nodes and follicles. Age-related features of the immune system. Cells of the immune system. Hematopoietic stem cells. The main cells of the immune system: T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages (A-cells) and
  6. The influence of valeology on human life
    In many cases, the basis of most of the human problems that make his life less effective or joyless is the lack of adequate ideas and rules for choosing life goals and methods for their optimal achievement. Therefore, the first main task of valeology is the study of questions of the choice of goals (their attainability, compliance with abilities, etc.) and ways of their implementation, development
  7. Gestalt as the main subject of the study of mental
    A critical attitude to understanding the subject and explanatory principles that have developed in the psychology of consciousness, as well as the introspection method itself, led to the emergence of a special direction at the beginning of the twentieth century - gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology is one of the largest areas in foreign psychology that arose in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century and put forward as the central
  8. Personality as a subject of study in humanistic psychology
    The most pronounced opposition to the recognition of the human nature dependent on various factors (from external stimuli - in behaviorism; from traumatic experiences supplanted from consciousness - in psychoanalysis) was the idea of ​​humanistic psychology (G. Allport, F. Perls, C. Rogers, A. Maslow). Implementing the humanitarian paradigm in psychological science, representatives of humanistic psychology recognized
  9. Summary of the valeology lesson “I am a man”
    Purpose: On the basis of research activities to develop the idea that a person is a part of nature, and at the same time a thinking creature; improve children's speech, develop imagination, creative imagination, communicative communication. Description The teacher offers to play the game "Living-inanimate." He tells the children that today they will talk about the person. Man is alive as
  10. Study of the skeletal system
    A study of various departments of the skeletal system is carried out during the entire closure, and we have already touched on this issue. At the opening of the skull, the condition of the bones of the skull is described, after the extraction of the organs of the chest and abdominal cavity, the ribs, sternum, clavicle, spine and pelvic bones are examined. They make cuts, measurements and cuts with a chisel. When opening the limbs examine the long bones and joints. therefore
  11. The development of motor functions and actions with objects
    Highlight the progressive movements and actions of the child (contributing to the acquisition of new experiences) and dead ends (fencing off from the outside world). The most important progressive movements: grabbing, manipulating objects, mastering active movement in space (holding the head, turning on its side, grabbing, sitting, crawling, walking). Progressive movements and actions
  12. Lesson in the circle of valeology on the topic: "Human habits"
    Topic: human habits. Objectives: • to bring children to the concept of the influence of habits on human health and life; • teach a visual representation of occurring phenomena. Tasks: • help to understand and comprehend the cause-effect relationships of life manifestations; • direct towards the correct orientation choice. The course of the lesson Teacher: - Hello guys! On today
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