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Mental health rights. Character accentuation
Mental health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is a condition that contributes to the most complete physical, mental and emotional development of a person.
Mental health is a state of balance between man and the outside world, the adequacy of his reactions to the social environment, as well as physical, biological and mental effects, the correspondence of nervous reactions to the strength and frequency of external stimuli, harmony between man and people around him, the consistency of ideas about objective reality this person with other people's ideas, a critical approach to any circumstances of life.
There are three levels of mental health:
? the level of psycho-physiological health (determined by the state and functioning of the central nervous system);
? the level of individual psychological health (determined by the state and functioning of mental activity);
? the level of personal health (determined by the ratio of human needs with the capabilities and requirements of the social environment).
Negative changes can occur both at one and at two and all three levels. Disorders of the psychophysiological level of health manifest themselves in the form of multiple nervous diseases that occur both in the central nervous system and in the peripheral (migraine, neuralgia, neuritis, polyneuritis, etc.). Violations of the individual psychological level of health determine the appearance of a number of mental diseases (disorders of perception, thinking, memory, emotions, etc.). Violations of the personal level of health cause changes in the personality orientation, which make it impossible for its normal coexistence with the social environment (alcoholism, drug addiction, maniac criminals).
The basis for the preservation and enhancement of mental health of a person is a healthy lifestyle: the formation of an optimal mode of mental and work activity, the maintenance of peace of mind and well-being. It is necessary to refuse tobacco smoking and the use of alcoholic beverages. You should learn to control your emotions and resist stress loads.
The emotional sphere of a person is a wide spectrum of his experiences and feelings. It performs a number of functions, such as stimulating, regulating, and eliminating the information deficit, the main one being the estimated one.
Emotional sphere consists of emotional experiences and feelings.
Any experience is an assessment of the process of satisfying an individual’s need.
Feeling is an assessment of the ability of a particular object to satisfy a given need of an individual.
The existing conventional classification of all human needs is divided into three large groups.
Vital - the needs of the biological order: in food, sleep, water, in the continuation of the kind, etc.
Social - the needs to belong to a social group and occupy a certain position in it, to receive attention and respect, to follow certain social norms.
Ideal - the needs of knowledge of themselves and the world, the meaning and significance of their existence, etc.
The diversity of human needs and their combinations cause, in turn, a large number of objects and forms of satisfaction, which are determined by upbringing, moral and ethical qualities of the person and the needs of society.
Emotional experiences of a person are divided into emotions and emotional states.
Emotions - short-term experiences of various forces, replacing each other after a change in the situation.
By the nature of changes in the course of physiological processes, emotions are divided into sthenic and asthenic. For the former, there is an internal upsurge, enthusiasm, for the latter, a decline in vital activity, anxiety, and emotional depression.
Emotions are a complex of somatic and vegetative reactions expressing a person’s attitude to the outside world and himself.
The somatic component of emotions is expressed in characteristic behavior, facial expressions, gestures, posture, change in tone, reduction of skeletal muscles. It causes a change in the mobility of the eyelids and eyeball.
Vegetative expressions of emotions obey the will of man and can affect the work of almost all organs and systems. All these changes are not a random set of physiological signs, but are an integral response of the organism, which characterizes a certain emotional manifestation.
Nine basic emotional states are distinguished, each of which can have a different strength and duration:
? pleasure is joy (the first is a moderate state, the second is a high degree of emotional arousal);
? interest - excitement;
? distress - grief;
? disgust - loathing;
? anger is rage;
? neglect - contempt;
? surprise - fear;
? shame, timidity - humiliation;
? fear is horror.
Feelings, unlike emotions and emotional states, are a relatively stable component of a person’s emotional sphere.
They are able to persist for a long time and without contact of an individual with the object of his feelings.
On the basis of emotional experiences, a huge spectrum of human feelings is formed. Allocate:
? positive feelings;
? neutral feelings;
? negative feelings;
? lower feelings;
? social feelings;
? aesthetic feelings;
? group of feelings associated with the concept of ownership.
The basis of the division into positive, negative and neutral feelings, as well as the division of emotional experiences, is based not only on the relationship between the need and the degree of satisfaction, but also on the physiological states caused by them.
For example, gloating, feeling of satisfied revenge, complacency belong to positive mental manifestations, as they cause sthenic reactions in the body, and compassion and regret to negative ones, as they lead to the appearance of asthenic signs.
Regulation of the emotional sphere is a person’s ability to express emotions and feelings adequately to the situation that has arisen.
A conscious system of motivation, personality activity, firmness of character, psychological stability allow to fully manage emotional experiences, to achieve a positive emotional background of the main spheres of life.
Positive experiences and feelings are a stimulus for a person, the ultimate goal of his life activity.
Character is a set of stable individual characteristics of a person, emerging and manifested in activity, communication, and determining typical behavioral patterns for it. Excessive strengthening of individual traits, expressed in a person’s selective vulnerability, is called accentuation. Personal accentuation is associated mainly with the characteristics of temperament, is made in adolescence, then gradually smoothed out, manifesting itself only in acute traumatic situations.
There are the following types of accentuated characters:
a) cycloid - prone to an abrupt change in mood depending on external influences;
b) asthenic - fast-wound, anxious, indecisive, irritable, prone to depression;
c) sensitive - very sensitive, timid, shy;
d) schizoid - emotionally cold, fenced, low contact;
e) stuck (paranoid) - heightened irritable, suspicious, touchy, ambitious, with a high persistence of negative affects;
f) epileptoid - poor controllability, impulsive behavior, intolerance, conflict, viscosity of thinking, pedantry are characteristic;
g) demonstrative (hysterical) - characterized by a tendency to childish forms of behavior, which is expressed in the tendency to oust unpleasant facts and events, deceit, fantasy and pretense, adventurous, vanity, lack of remorse, “escape into illness” when the need for recognition is not met;
h) hyperthymic - with constantly high spirits and a thirst for activity, but not bringing to the end, scattering, chatty;
i) dysthyme - overly serious and responsible, focused on dark thoughts, not active, prone to depression;
j) unstable - overly influenced by the environment of the company.
The above character traits can manifest themselves not only in acute stressful situations, but constantly, which impedes adaptation to the social environment. In these cases we are talking about the pathology of nature, i.e. about psychopathy. The names of psychopathies are basically the same as accentuations. Psychopathies are borderline conditions.
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Mental health rights. Character accentuation
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