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Psychoactive substances

Over the past decade, the problem of drug addiction in Russia has become one of the most acute and painful social problems. At a meeting of the Security Council of Russia in June 1999. it was considered as one of the real threats to the national security of public health. Under supervision in dispensaries by the end of the first half of 2000 there were 350 thousand patients with drug addiction, or an increase in their number in the 90s. - 12 times. According to experts, the real number is 7-10 times higher than this figure, i.e. actually reaches 2.5-3 million people.

Developed in 1998 The federal target program “Comprehensive Measures to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking for 1999-2001” provides for the use of a wide variety of measures, with the main emphasis on preventive, preventive efforts.

Alcoholism, drug addiction, substance abuse are progressive mental disorders resulting from the systematic abuse of alcohol, drugs or other psychoactive drugs (PAS) and characterized by the formation of a large drug addiction syndrome, withdrawal disorders and specific personality changes.

A psychoactive (psychotropic) substance is considered to be a substance, the intake of which sometimes leads to a violation of consciousness or the psyche. All psychoactive substances can become sources of abuse, misuse and development of psychological and physical dependence. According to ICD-10, these include: alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives or hypnotics, cocaine, other stimulants, including caffeine, hallucinogens, tobacco, volatile solvents, due to the combined use of drugs and the use of other psychoactive substances (10) .

Ten classes of psychoactive drugs can be divided according to their effect on the central nervous system into three categories:

• substances that have a sedative effect on the activity of the central nervous system (alcohol, opiates and sedatives);

• drugs that stimulate the activity of the central nervous system (caffeine, cocaine, amphetamine, volatile solvents and nicotine);

• hallucinogens such as LSD, messaline, psilocybin, MMDA (3-methoxy-4,5-megalene-dioxiphenyl-isopropylamine, Ecstasy), DOM (dimethoxybromamphetamine), DMT (dimethyltryptamine) and PCP (phencyclidine / pensilidine, " dust of an angel ”).

Addiction (from the Greek. Nark “numbness” and mania “insanity; passion”) is a disease expressed in physical and / or mental dependence on drugs, an irresistible attraction to them, which gradually leads to a deep depletion of the physical and mental functions of the body.

Drugs are substances whose consumption, unlike alcohol, can more quickly and strongly lead to the formation of mental and physical dependence (addiction), i.e. a condition in which a person feels the need for regular intake of these funds.

Classification of drug disorders.

Flx.O Acute intoxication (intoxication)

.07 pathological intoxication

Flx.l Harmful use

Flx.2 Addiction Syndrome

Flx.3 withdrawal state (withdrawal syndrome)

Flx.4 Cancel state with delirium

Flx.5 Psychotic Disorder

Flx.6 Amnestic Syndrome

Flx.7 Residual psychotic disorder and psychotic disorder with a late (delayed) debut

Flx.8 Other Mental and Behavioral Disorders

Flx.9 Unspecified mental and behavioral disorder.

The most important criteria for the definition of this group of disorders are the abuse of substances that directly affect the functions of the central nervous system, and dependence on these substances.

Substance abuse is detected if one or more of the following symptoms is detected during the last 12 months:

1) The constant use of substances impedes the performance of certain work, school or household duties.

2) The constant intake of substances in situations in which they pose a danger to human health.

3) Repeatedly committing unlawful acts due to the intake of substances.

4) Despite the fact that these substances cause or intensify temporary or long-term social or interpersonal problems, their intake does not stop.

Diagnostic criteria for substance abuse

To make a diagnosis, it is necessary that at least three of the following criteria are met for 12 months:

1. The development of tolerance, ascertained on the basis of:

a) the need for a noticeable increase in dose to achieve the desired effect or a certain level of intoxication;

b) a clear weakening of the action upon subsequent administration of the same dose.

2. The presence of withdrawal symptoms, characterized by one of the following points:

a) a characteristic withdrawal syndrome when you stop taking the appropriate substance;

b) by taking the same (or very similar) substance to alleviate withdrawal symptoms or avoid them.

3. The substance is taken longer and in larger doses than intended.

4. Unsuccessful attempts to reduce the dosage or control the intake of substances.

5. The individual spends a lot of time and effort to get the substance (for example, visits various doctors or makes long trips), to use it (for example, becomes a heavy smoker) or to recover from its effects.

6. Refusal from important social, professional or leisure activities or its restriction due to substance abuse.

Permanent substance abuse, despite the realization that social, psychological or physical problems that arise or intensify due to substance abuse, continue to arise and accumulate.

Caffeine dependence is excluded from this classification, since coffee consumption generally does not cause mental disorders and there is no withdrawal symptoms when switching to coffee with a low caffeine content or ersatz coffee.

Changing the style of substance use is also considered a characteristic sign of addiction syndrome.


• chronic alcoholism;

• Dipsomania (occasional use);

• drug addiction.

What is the reason for using narcotic substances? This is a whole complex of reasons.

First of all, with their help you can control your psycho-emotional state, cheer up, cheer up, get a pleasant feeling. Of great importance in the use of drugs and toxic substances are biological, psychological, cultural, religious, ethical, political, economic and social factors.

Recent studies in our country and abroad have convincingly shown the biological nature of chemical dependence. It is associated with congenital disorders of certain brain processes. It is not drug addiction or substance abuse that is inherited, but a predisposition to it. Whether it manifests itself or not, depends on the circumstances.

Studies of the biochemical processes of the human brain have shown that there are innate differences between people who become or do not become alcoholics. The former have significantly less endorphins in brain cells than the latter. In addition, they have an extremely low enzyme activity - alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol into simple products.

It is well known that among alcoholic parents, children almost always become alcoholics. And not only heredity is guilty of this, but also the environment in which the child grows and develops. Foster children, whose parents suffered from alcoholism, matured, become 3 times more likely to become alcoholics. If the child had developed in a favorable environment, burdened heredity might not have manifested itself.

Some of the problematic situations that increase the likelihood of becoming addicted to drugs are family disorder and scandals, one of the parents or both are drug addicts, indifferent or indifferent parents to their child, experienced physical, emotional or sexual abuse, the influence of drug addicts, drug availability, feelings of anxiety, fear, loneliness, antisocial behavior at school and much more.

It is not true that all people are equally addicted to drugs. Each person has a very individual attitude to drugs, from absolute drug rejection (complete abstinence) to the inability to refuse without appropriate intervention (insurmountable dependence).

Typical situations in which the first acquaintance with drugs occurs.

1. Curiosity is a certain motive, including for future drug addicts. This is a completely unjustified risk, since no one knows in advance how the body will react to the drug.

2. The need to support the company and not seem old-fashioned, out of date. This is a very dangerous and extremely risky experiment.

3. Some people, due to their individual characteristics, feel the need to use a narcotic substance not only because of mental, but also because of physiological dependence, which leads to complete degradation of the person and the inevitable death of a person.

What damage does drug use cause?

• The systematic use of a drug for a teenager inevitably leads to the development of insurmountable dependence, both mental and physiological. This happens almost immediately.

• Drug use negatively affects the formation of a young man’s personality, his studies and career. Always fraught with the destruction of health at a young age.

• Drug use creates real prerequisites for estrangement from peers, estrangement from former friends.

• Addiction is usually accompanied by theft, deception, prostitution and real crime.

• Any drug has a stronger effect on the fragile body of a young person than an adult, and this causes the teenager even more harm.

The most characteristic signs that indicate that the child began to take drugs; even one single one of them should not be left without parental attention:

• unexpected decline in performance from fives and fours to triples and even deuces;

• frequent absenteeism, which was previously not noticed;

• a decline in interest in learning and frequent conflicts at school;

• unwillingness to adhere to established rules of conduct at school and at home;

• irritability, nervousness, isolation, secrecy;

• emergence of a new company, negative attitude to the old;

• emergence of limited interests;

• the constant need for pocket money;

• frequent absence of home;

• the appearance of marks from injections in the area of ​​the arteries of the elbow joint or along the arteries of the upper limb;

• shine in the eyes.

Treatment of drug addicts, getting rid of drug addiction is not only a medical problem in its purest form. State, public, legal and social institutions should be equally interested in its positive decision, and literature, art and the media should contribute to this.
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