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Rational nutrition - the guarantee of health

Our nutrients should be a remedy, and our remedies should be nutrients.

Hippocrates

Principles of rational nutrition. Squirrels. Fat Carbohydrates. Cellulose. Pectic substances. Vitamins. Minerals.

Nutrition that provides full development is called rational (the ratio from the Latin. - reason, calculation, measure and lationalis - reasonable, expedient). All issues relating to the beneficial and harmful properties of food, the quantity and quality of food consumed by man have been studied by such science as food hygiene.

Nutrition Hygiene highlights the following principles of nutrition:

1. Strict compliance of the energy value of food with the energy consumption of the body.

2. Separate nutritional substances of a balanced diet (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, etc. BAS) should be in a strictly defined ratio between each other: b: g: y = 1: 1: 4 (almost like sausage, oil and bread in a sandwich).

3. Compliance with the diet (mode - the distribution of food during the day, time, calorie, volume, ie, the multiplicity of food intake and the intervals between them).

4. Creating optimal conditions for the assimilation of food by a person in the preparation of a daily diet (food of protein origin is planned for the first half of the day, etc.).

5. Food should be perfect in sanitary and epidemiological terms. Products should not pose a health hazard due to the presence of physical, chemical or biological pollutants or deterioration processes (oxidation, fermentation, salinization, etc.) if they are not properly stored and sold.

These principles are accepted by the scientific medical community of all countries of the world. And fashionable regularly arising diets according to P. Bragg, G. Shelton, blood type, etc., are nothing more than a political order to relieve social tension in a society that cannot afford to eat meat, oil, eggs, and etc., i.e. natural expensive and vital human food.



Table 4 - Energy costs of a person depending on the type of activity

To maintain a normal body weight a person needs to know how many calories his body consumes per day and how many they consume. Calorie consumption depends on gender, age and physical activity. The scientists of the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences identified five labor groups depending on their physical activity and determined the approximate energy consumption for each of these groups (Table 4). Knowing the energy value of food, it is easy to calculate the number of calories contained in the daily diet of any person (Appendix 3).

The main nutritional ingredients of products are proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In addition, with food we get vitamins, minerals and water.

For protein foods include products of animal origin: meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Proteins are a “building material”, they are necessary for the human body because they contain essential amino acids, that is, they are not formed directly in it. And in general, by definition, the great philosopher F. Engels, "Life is a way of existence of protein bodies." Lack of protein in the diet is especially dangerous for children, adolescents and pregnant women. Therefore, vegetarianism is unnatural to human nature.

Well-known phytotherapeutist-pharmacologist O.D. In his wonderful book Introduction to Herbal Medicine, Barnaul writes, “It would seem that I, as a phytopharmacologist, a phytotherapeutist, need to promote vegetarianism, but I was not so lucky among pure and not very clean vegetarians, raw foodists, I most often met people with mental disabilities ".

Fats are also necessary for the normal functioning of the body, it is a reserve of energy and a source for the formation of certain hormones, cell membranes, etc. They consist of glycerol and higher fatty acids (IVH). Especially important for human health are the so-called polyunsaturated high fatty acids, which are even called vitamin F. They contribute to the normalization of cholesterol metabolism in the body and thereby prevent the development of atherosclerosis. In the 70s. there was even anti-sclerotic pharmaceutical drug "Linetol", which was linseed oil.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are contained in liquid (low-melting) fats, that is, in such vegetable oils as olive oil, sunflower oil, as well as in fish and pork fat, they are not synthesized in the human body and must always be supplied, we must come from outside.

All other products are related to carbohydrates - the sources of "fast energy", which are chains of saccharides. If the chains are short (mono-, disaccharides), then carbohydrates are sweet in taste and easily absorbed in the intestines.
These are honey, sugar, glucose, fructose, which are the main source of energy in the human body. In the absence of such carbohydrates in food, they begin to suffer and even die off brain cells.

If the carbohydrate chain is very long, like that of fiber, then it cannot digest its intestines (there are not so many departments for this in the intestines of a person, like, for example, a cow) and nothing is absorbed into the blood. Why then eat foods rich in fiber, such as raw vegetables, fruits, bran and bakery products from gray flour? Cellulose acts on the intestinal wall, like a straw on an earthworm. If you poke it with a straw, then it is izovёtsya. Similarly, the intestinal wall, when exposed to fiber, begins to move, that is, peristalsis appears, which contributes to the advancement of the food lump. And even coarse fiber - a kind of broom, it carries with it all that sticks to the walls of the intestine. Here is such a benefit from it - cleansing.

The role of intestinal cleanser is performed by another substance of carbohydrate nature, which is also not absorbed - pectin. It is a powerful sorbent that collects all poisons and radionuclides in its path. Especially a lot of pectic substances in the juice of red currants, they are in apples.

It is important to remember one very useful tip. When intestinal upset it is forbidden to eat raw fruits and vegetables, since the fiber contained in them will increase diarrhea. But if the apples are baked in the oven, the fiber will collapse, and the pectins will be released, and the apple will have the same effect as “Smecta” or activated charcoal. A sick person has no appetite, and if this is a small child, it is all the more almost impossible to feed him. Giving a baked apple, you will immediately perform two functions: feed the person and cleanse him of the gastrointestinal tract.

Carbohydrates with an average chain length contain starch, which, slowly splitting, is gradually absorbed. Thanks to starch, many products that contain it (bread, cereals, pasta, potatoes) cause a person to feel full.

Modern industry produces refined, i.e. highly refined products, such as refined sugar, refined vegetable oil or high-grade flour and its products. Such products are deprived of fiber, vitamins, other biologically active substances and often harm the body, since they are not natural for it. Although they seem tasty to us, they should be avoided whenever possible.

Vitamins play a significant role in human health. These are low-molecular biologically active substances (BAS), without which a person cannot exist (from Lat. Vita-life). With their lack of in the human body such painful conditions as hypovitaminosis develop, with an excess - hypervitaminosis, and in the complete absence - avitaminosis (Table 5).

Table 5 - Basic vitamins and their effects on the body

Table 6 - The main chemical elements and their effects on the body

One of the most important food ingredients is water. It is 2/3 of the human body mass, takes part in all biochemical processes, in removing toxins from the body. A person should consume at least 2-3 liters of water per day. It should pay attention to the fact that tap water is not always suitable for drinking and cooking. It is best to pass through special filters, you can “freeze”. In a number of regions of the Russian Federation, tap water is only suitable for technical purposes and the population is forced to buy or get water from a water carrier.

It becomes clear that absolutely all nutrients are vital for the human body and the most healthy is a mixed diet, in which there are a variety of foods, both animal and vegetable origin.

Test questions and tasks

1. What are the principles of nutrition.

2. What are vitamins and what diseases are associated with them?

3. What is fiber and what is it for?

4. What food is called protein?

5. What foods are carbohydrates?

6. What do you know about the role of minerals in human nutrition?

7. Using Appendix 3, calculate the caloric content of your daily diet and compare it with the energy consumption required for your work group.

8. Remember the new terms and definitions that you encountered while studying this topic.
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