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AIDS and HIV prevention methods
how you rejoice in the morning and spring.
Henry David Thor
AIDS. HIV infection. Parenteral, sexual, and vertical HIV transmission routes. Not an occasional sexual partner. For the first time, information on a series of unusual diseases among Americans (25-49 years old), 94% of whom were homosexuals, went to the Atlas Disease Control Center in mid-1981. Facts showed that young people apparently healthy people develop diseases such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia, from which they quickly die. It is believed that the first official AIDS patient in the United States was Gaetan Duga, a Stuart of one of the US airlines that infected 40 of the first 250 victims of the disease.
Kaposi's sarcoma is a lesion of the skin and mucous membranes, due to tumor-like growth of capillaries, which was previously registered only in people over 60 years of age. Pneumocystis pneumonia - pneumonia caused by a microbe - pneumocystis, previously only affected newborns, and premature babies. These diseases could affect only people with weakened immunity, which was detected in the first AIDS patients.
It was necessary to give a name to such unusual cases of diseases, and in 1982 they were called the collective term “AIDS” - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Since then, the entire world community has been looking for methods of preventing and treating AIDS.
In 1983, the French immunologist Luc Montagnier announced the discovery of the cause of AIDS - the retrovirus, for which in 2008 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology.
In 1984, the first pharmaceutical preparations against this infection were revealed, and in 1985, diagnostic test systems for detecting antibodies to the virus were proposed.
In 1986, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses called the causative agent of AIDS the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV causes the destruction of the immune system and makes the patient susceptible to various infections and tumors.
HIV-infected - persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. They can for a long time be in a state of virus carrier (20 years or more), ending in AIDS. AIDS is the end stage of a disease. Its duration does not usually exceed five years.
In the USSR, the first case of HIV infection was identified in. 1987. A patient who was homosexual and brought the disease from Africa, where he worked as a journalist for a long time, established all sexual contacts that occurred on the territory of the Soviet Union. All persons in contact with him were examined and it was found that out of 22 men, he infected 5 people. One of them was a blood donor, but her path could not be traced. Five people who were infected did not have any other homosexual contacts, and among the women (there were 24 in total) who had sexual relations with them, only three found HIV infection.
From the above facts, very interesting conclusions can be drawn.
1. There were practically no hidden homosexuals, as well as drug addicts, in the USSR. Twenty-two curious people tried to experiment, and five of them (all other sexual contacts they had only with women) of them paid for it.
2. Not every sexual intercourse with an HIV-infected partner leads to infection. According to statistics, husbands of women infected with the AIDS virus who do not want to protect themselves during sexual intercourse become carriers of HIV infection only after 2-3 years.
In 1989, nosocomial outbreaks occurred in cities such as Elista, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, when hundreds of children were infected with HIV. This happened because earlier mankind did not encounter exactly this type of infection and the health legislation of that time could not prevent the tragedies that erupted. The investigation of these cases revealed the following.
First, one syringe was used in several patients. In the 80s. disposable syringes and systems for drip intravenous administration of drugs have just begun to appear. The syringes were glass, they often broke or burst during sterilization by boiling, they were constantly in short supply. Therefore, it was not forbidden to give injections with the same syringe to different patients, while changing only the needle. In terms of volume, an adult needs quite a lot of medicinal substance, but for a child, especially a breast one, just a little. Therefore, the reusable syringe system could only be used in children's wards.
It was common to use one large container with a medicinal product, for example, Hemodez, to several patients also with changing only the needle.
In this case, the transmission of infection was facilitated by the fact that the blood-borne infections known at that time could not be transferred from person to person in this way. But for the transmission of HIV, it is enough to get a drop of infected blood into the body of a healthy person, the size of which is only 0.0001 ml. Such an amount of it can be introduced from the tissues against the flow of the drug substance into the syringe during the injection by the so-called turbulent flow of fluid in the lumen of the needle. The clearance of the needle is a pipe of narrow diameter, and in any pipe, the liquid flows in two directions: laminar - directly, in the opposite direction from the pressure source and turbulently, i.e. swirling against the walls.
Secondly, it was customary to sterilize the instruments directly in the treatment and vaccination rooms, most often by boiling. The nurses themselves were doing this. It was supposed to boil the syringes for at least 40 minutes. Only the conscience of the nurse herself, who could “wiggle” during heavy night duty, was responsible for fulfilling all sterilization requirements, because it seemed that it was enough to rinse the syringes or bring them to a boil, especially in the children's department, where everyone was healthy in terms of infection. Thus, it was possible to use obviously non-sterile tools.
In addition, in those years, blood transfusion was very widespread for patients as a therapeutic drug for many pathologies. It wasn’t even a question of checking this blood for the AIDS virus. Therefore, the primary cause of the introduction of HIV-infected into the children's wards was precisely the donated blood, and only then the virus began to walk from patient to patient.
The indicated causes of the nosocomial spread of HIV infection in children's wards served as the basis for the revision of many issues in the health legislation.
It was strictly forbidden to use the same syringe in different patients. The production of disposable medical instruments quickly began to develop, and methods for its disposal were also invented. They began to make smaller packaging of drugs for intravenous drip infusion.
But there are surgical, dental and other piercing and cutting tools that are used repeatedly. For their sterilization, Central Sterilization Departments were created, where it is carried out in autoclaves at high temperature and under high pressure with specially trained personnel. All other sterilization options are prohibited in the Russian Federation. Therefore, very often individually practicing doctors sell their patients needles for RTI. In order to exclude the transmission of the virus during gerudotherapy (treatment with leeches), leeches also began to be sold to patients who, if desired, can reuse them, but only for themselves.
These measures led to the fact that in the Russian Federation there were no more cases of nosocomial outbreaks of HIV infection. In addition, a lot of changes affected the issues of donated blood and its preparations.
An order has been issued banning blood transfusion in so many diseases. There was practically one single indication for the use of donated blood, "For health reasons."
Blood donors began to be tested for HIV, but this measure did not produce the expected results. A person infected with the AIDS virus may be tested negative for another 6 months (this is the “window period”), and his blood is already contagious. Therefore, all people who have received donated blood should be registered and examined at the AIDS Prevention Center for one and a half years.
Until 1995, not a single case of AIDS infection through drugs was registered in the Russian Federation. In 1995, the law "On Prevention of the Spread of the Disease in the Russian Federation Due to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)" entered into force.
In Belarus, the AIDS situation was as follows. The first two cases of HIV infection were detected in 1990 in a couple who had worked in a country in Africa for a long time. A man - a dentist became infected at his workplace (dentists always worked without gloves before the 90s), and he infected his wife sexually. Due to the fact that this couple leads a healthy lifestyle, they are still alive and healthy, being only carriers of HIV.
If you take the textbooks of infectious diseases of the 80s.
publications, then you can read that HIV-infected people are allowed 3-5 years of life. Then in the 90s. this period was extended to 10 years. Today’s textbooks already give the number 20. This is because AIDS is a completely new disease, and no one knows how long asymptomatic virus carriers can actually last. Some speedologists have begun to believe that this disease, which has all the signs of a classic infectious disease and is very similar to viral hepatitis B, in people who have a healthy lifestyle, it can take as long as it does in the form of carriage of the virus, up to old age.
For ten years from 1990 to 2000, the epidemiological welfare of AIDS continued in Buryatia. There were practically no new HIV-infected and as of January 1, 2000 there were only 24. But then a sharp rise in the incidence rate began, which affected primarily the risk group - intravenous drug addicts. In 2000 and 2001 more than 600 new HIV-infected were registered. To date, there has been a stabilization of growth indicators and per year the growth is an average of 300 new cases. However, the situation has changed qualitatively. AIDS went beyond risk groups and began to walk among the entire population, as the route of transmission of the infection changed from parenteral to sexual. To date, more than 3.5 thousand HIV-infected people are registered in the Republic of Belarus.
The unbridled hysteria raised in the media about the universal extinction from AIDS, which lasted more than 10 years in our country, is not justified today. Yes, AIDS is a serious infectious disease that has not been found to date with one hundred percent effective drugs and vaccines for vaccinations have not been invented.
This is because HIV is hiding from drugs inside white blood cells - T-lymphocytes and brain cells - neurons. There, no medicine known to date can affect him. But to kill viruses that freely floating in the blood is easy. Therefore, all known methods of prophylaxis with the help of retroviral drugs are based on killing him directly in the bloodstream, where he necessarily gets from the destroyed cells in which he lived and reproduced for some time.
Scientific developments to create a cure for AIDS are just going in this direction. They are trying to create such a pharmacological form of the drug that will kill immunodeficiency viruses floating in the blood and thereby prevent them from integrating into new healthy cells and destroying them. Thus, a person will remain HIV-infected all his life, but he will never get AIDS itself, which is terribly difficult.
In the stage of AIDS itself, when a significant destruction of the cells of the immune system has already occurred, a person is “devoured” by cancerous tumors, candida fungi and other infections, which is accompanied by terrible pain and pain. People are afraid of this kind of AIDS and they call it “the plague of the 21st century”.
For more than twenty years, scientists around the world have been developing an antiviral AIDS vaccine. But HIV tends to mutate frequently, that is, to change. And if the flu changes every year, and every year the population of the Earth watches for a new epidemic with a virus with unknown properties, then HIV mutates 100 times more often. This means that the AIDS vaccine created today will not work in three days, as the virus will change beyond recognition.
By the way, the flu vaccine, as everyone probably noticed, does not protect a person from the disease, because it was made from the viruses of the previous year with the "old" properties. But this vaccine softens the course of the disease: the temperature does not rise to 41 ° C, but only to 38 ° C, and recovery occurs without complications and deaths.
In order to be healthy and not get infected with the AIDS virus, you need to know the ways of its transmission and always remember and use the methods of prevention associated with the interruption of these ways.
HIV is transmitted in three ways:
parenteral - in case of violation of the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes with infected blood;
sexual - with unprotected accidental sexual contact;
vertical - from mother to child.
Parenteral (from the Greek. Para + entera - about + intestinal) in literal translation - a method of transmitting the virus, bypassing the intestinal tract. Much has been written about the transmission of HIV by this route and its interruption. The rule here is one: "Everything that can be disposable must be disposable." And if stabbing tools are used repeatedly, then they must be either sterile or individual for each person. Here it is necessary to recall personal hygiene items: combs, razors, toothbrushes, etc. They are so called because they should be personal to each person.
With regard to sexual transmission, chastity, abstinence and condom use in case of accidental sexual intercourse will protect against infection.
It is appropriate to give a definition given by speedologists about what is not a random sexual partner. People become non-random sexual partners if:
• within 6 months they meet and are protected with a condom,
• under the condition that they have no secondary sexual relations,
• then get tested for HIV.
and only then, if everything is in order, can refuse to use condoms, since they are no longer random sexual partners.
In addition, homosexual contacts are most dangerous in terms of HIV infection. Firstly, such sexual intercourse is very traumatic, since the rectum is designed by the body for completely different functions. And as a result, even microtrauma always forms the entrance gate for infection - infected sperm. Secondly, it was found that sperm itself affects a man’s body as an immunosuppressant, i.e. destroys his immunity. Thirdly, homosexuality is unnatural to human nature.
Therefore, infected homosexuals die within 3 to 4 years.
Every year more and more children are born from HIV-infected mothers. The vertical transmission of the AIDS virus has three options.
Intrauterine transmission of HIV from a pregnant woman to the fetus is extremely rare. This can happen only with a diseased placenta. The placenta is a temporary organ, and just like any other (kidney, heart), it can hurt.
The most dangerous option is the time of birth, because it is always associated with trauma and blood. Therefore, the prevention of transmission of the virus is aimed at ensuring that women do not freely dangle HIV in their blood at the time of delivery and can not enter the body of the child. This method is quite successful, because in women not treated in this way, according to statistics, 30 out of 100 HIV-infected children are born, and after undergoing prophylaxis, according to various sources, only from 1 to 10 out of 100.
It is theoretically believed that infection with the virus can occur when breastfeeding, although this issue remains controversial. Nevertheless, HIV-infected mothers are advised to feed the baby with artificial mixtures.
Immediately after birth, it is impossible to determine the state of the baby’s health, as he always has positive AIDS tests. Indeed, up to a year and a half, maternal antibodies to the virus can be in his body, which pass through the placenta very easily. All this time he should be registered and regularly tested for antibodies to HIV, and only after this period it is possible to talk about whether he was born a virus carrier or not.
Thus, in an HIV-infected couple, subject to all the rules of prevention, in 90% of cases a healthy child can be born.
Where AIDS came from on Earth, scientists do not know. There are many theories that:
• the virus flew to our planet with cosmic dust,
• it is a mutated monkey virus,
• it was specially created as a biological weapon,
• it always existed on the planet in the blood of blacks, but acquired pathogenic properties as a result of the “hunger riot” due to the destruction of the Copper Belt in Africa and others.
Now this is not the main thing, although it is of great interest. Главное в профилактике СПИДа - это соблюдение ЗОЖ!
Test questions and tasks
1. Расскажите об истории распространения СПИДа в мире и в России.
2. Какие пути передачи ВИЧ существуют.
3. Что такое парентеральный путь передачи вируса СПИДа и какие меры его профилактики известны.
4. Расскажите о вертикальном пути передачи ВИЧ.
5. Как предупредить передачу СПИДа половым путем?
6. По каким критериям определяется не случайный половой партнер?
7. Найдите в СМИ, Интернете, специальной литературе версии о происхождении СПИДа, обсудите их на семинаре.
8. Запомните новые термины и определения, встретившиеся Вам при изучении данной темы.
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СПИД и методы профилактики ВИЧ-инфекции
- Abstract. ВИЧ инфекции и СПИД, 2009
Введение Определение понятия СПИД История открытия ВИЧ Передача ВИЧ инфекции Патогенез и клиника ВИЧ-инфекции Клинические проявления СПИД - ассоциированный комплекс Проявление СПИДа Особенности инфицирования и заболевания детей Лечение Возможности разработки вакцин Статистика
- The general concept of HIV infection and the prevention of HIV infection in surgery
Human Immunodeficiency Virus A virus from the group of retroviruses. It parasitizes in human cells that have a cellular receptor for CD-4 (mainly cells of the lymphoid series). The virus is not very resistant to the effects of active environmental factors, for example, at a temperature of 56 degrees C. It is inactivated for half an hour, at a temperature of 100 degrees C. for 1 to 2 minutes. At the same time in frozen
- ВИЧ и СПИД
Задание 20. Отметьте варианты Вашего ответа, пользуясь сокращениями В - верно, Н - неверно, ? - не знаю. 1. Вы можете носить ВИЧ в крови и не знать об этом? 2. Вы можете быть больным СПИД и выглядеть здоровым? 3. Все болеют СПИД? 4. Мать, носящая ВИЧ, может передать его своему ребенку? 5. СПИД может быть вылечен, если начать лечение рано? 6. Вы можете заразиться
- Sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention. AIDS and its prevention. Prevention of Sexual Violence
The sexual life of a person can be divided into three components: the platonic part, the erotic component and coital contacts. In the platonic part, the spiritual layer of questions is concentrated - words, views, letters, phone calls, etc. Erotic - these are dances, hugs, kisses, affection. Coitus from Latin translates as intercourse, and the couple chooses the form that is most pleasing to them and
- HIV INFECTION AND SYPHILIS - A GENERALITY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND FEATURES OF CLINICAL COURSE IN PATIENTS WITH MIXED INFECTION
Analysis of the HIV epidemic gives reason to fully consider it as a sexually transmitted disease, the epidemiological and clinical features of which are very similar to syphilis. HIV infection has a number of characteristic STI pathogens, in particular pale treponema, biological properties, and in the spread of HIV infection, as well as other STIs, a decisive role is played
- Abstract. HIV infection, 2009
Introduction The definition of speed. The story of the discovery of HIV. Особенности возбудителя Спида. New variants of the AIDS virus. The structure of the viral particle of HIV. Genome structure and expression of HIV genes. Theories of the origin of HIV. HIV transmission Co-factors of HIV infection. Pathogenesis and clinic of HIV infection. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2). Diagnosis of HIV infection. Treatment.
- HIV infection
^ The causative agent is HIV. ^ Prevalence - several thousand HIV-infected children are born annually in the United States. ^ Путь передачи — парентеральный, половой, вертикальный. ^ The clinic in a pregnant woman is variable, from asymptomatic to a detailed picture of AIDS. ^ Diagnosis - serology. ^ Influence on the fetus - HIV-infected children will subsequently develop AIDS. ^ Prevention -
- HIV infection
D. Chernof AIDS was first described in the United States in the late 70s and early 80s. It has been described in homosexuals suffering from pneumocystis pneumonia and severe recurrent herpes of the skin and mucous membranes. In 1984, the American and French researchers discovered the causative agent of this disease - HIV type 1. Despite the fact that the structure and properties of HIV are well studied, methods of effective
- HIV infection
HIV infection (infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus) is a slowly progressive infectious disease characterized by damage to the immune system first of all. The subsequent developing immunodeficiency state leads to the death of the patient from concomitant infections and tumors. The first official reports of a new infection among young gay men appeared in
- ВИЧ - инфекция
ВИЧ - инфекция - заболевание, вызываемое вирусом иммунодефицита человека, протекающее с поражением иммунной и нервной систем, проявляющееся развитием тяжелых инфекционных поражений и злокачественных новообразований. СПИД (синдром приобретенного иммунодефицита) является терминальной (смертельной) стадией ВИЧ - инфекции. Впервые СПИД, как опасное инфекционное заболевание, зарегистрирован в 1981
- HIV INFECTION
HIV infection (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - AIDS, human immunodeficiency virus infection - HIV infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - AIDS, erworbenen immundefektsyndrome - EIDS, syndrome d'immunodeficience acquise - SIDA) is a slowly progressive infectious disease resulting from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, affecting the immune system, in
- HIV infection
HIV infection (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - AIDS) is a slowly progressive infectious viral disease with damage to the immune system, as a result of which the body becomes highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors, which ultimately lead to the death of the patient. The source of infection is infected people, patients, and virus carriers. Возбудитель может
- HIV infection
HIV ETIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV is transmitted from person to person at all stages of the disease. The virus is found in blood, semen, CSF, breast milk, vaginal and cervical secretions, therefore these biofluids are a source of infection. The transmission of the virus is through sexual (homosexual and heterosexual contacts), parenteral through infected blood (using non-sterile instruments, administration
- Оппортунистические инфекции и СПИД
Инфекции, которые для здоровых людей обычно безвредны или являются скрытыми, в случаях нарушения иммунитета хозяина при генетическом или приобретенном иммунодефиците часто проявляют себя. Такие оппортунистические инфекции встречаются, в частности, у больных, получающих иммуносупрессивную или цитотоксическую терапию по поводу опухолей, пересаженных трансплантатов, аутоиммунных заболеваний, и
- HIV infection
The causative agent of HIV infection is the human immunodeficiency virus: HIV - can be of two types (1 and 2) (in English HIV). The causative agent of HIV infection belongs to the family Retroviridae. Representatives of this family affect a wide variety of animals - rodents, birds, mammals, as well as humans. The viruses that make up this family are RNA mi, they are capable of using reverse trans cryptase
- Неврологические проявления ВИЧ инфекции (нейроСПИД)
Инфицирование вирусом иммунодефицита человека (ВИЧ инфекция) может протекать в виде латентного вирусоносительства и в виде синдрома приобретенного иммунодефицита (СПИД), являющегося конечной стадией ВИЧ инфекции. ВИЧ инфекция, как правило, сопровождается разнообразной неврологической симптоматикой. Выделяют две группы неврологических проявлений, связанных с ВИЧ инфекцией. Первая группа –
- HIV infection
The organization of diagnosis, treatment, dispensary observation and the content of HIV-infected people is carried out on the basis of the requirements of the legislation in relation to this infection. All identified HIV-infected persons are taken to the dispensary. Clinical observation should ensure the following tasks: • identification and treatment of the patient’s or newly emerging