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Learn, baby, breathe properly!

The development of respiration is one of the first and very important stages of correctional impact on children - logopaths, regardless of the type of their speech defect.

What is the difference between speech breathing and normal breathing? Breath in life is involuntary. It performs the function of gas exchange in the human body. Inhale and exhale through the nose, they are short and equal in time. The sequence of physiological breathing - inhale, exhale, pause.

For speech, especially monologue, usually physiological breathing is not enough. Speech and reading out loud require a large amount of air, a constant respiratory reserve, an economical expenditure of it and a timely resumption, regulated by the respiratory center of the brain. Will and consciousness are involved in the initial stage of mastering speech breathing, aimed at fulfilling the necessary breathing task. Such an arbitrary speech breathing, achieved only through training, gradually becomes involuntary and organized.

It is necessary to breathe through the nose, the habit of breathing through the mouth is very harmful for the human body, leading to diseases of the thyroid gland, tonsils, the entire respiratory system. Nasal breathing protects the throat and lungs from cold air and dust, well ventilates the lungs, the middle ear cavity, which has a connection with the nasopharynx, has a beneficial effect on the blood vessels of the brain. It is necessary to breathe through the nose in everyday life and when performing breathing exercises. The role of proper nasal breathing and breathing exercises in a person’s life is enormous. Respiratory gymnastics has been successfully used as a valid method of treating diseases of the upper respiratory tract (runny nose, laryngitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis), asthma, and neuroses. Healthy people can use breathing exercises to prevent many diseases.

In speech breathing inhale and exhale are not equal, the latter is much longer than the inhale. Different and the sequence of breathing. After a short inhalation, a pause follows to strengthen the abdominals, and then a long sound expiration.

Since the sounds of speech are formed during exhalation, his organization is of paramount importance for the formulation of speech breathing and voice, for their development and improvement. Therefore, the ultimate goal of training speech diaphragmatic rib breathing is to train a long exhalation, to train the ability to rationally expend air supply during speech.

To do this, it is necessary to teach the muscles involved in the respiratory process and keeping the chest in an expanded state, not to relax passively immediately after exhalation. Relaxation should occur gradually as needed, subject to our will. For the development of this type of breathing, training exercises will be given below to develop and strengthen the diaphragm, abdominal and intercostal muscles.

Complex breathing exercises.

Younger group.

Exercise number 1. "Roll call animals."

Speech therapist distributes the roles of various animals and birds among children. Children should, hearing from the host the name of their animal, on a slow exhalation, utter an appropriate onomatopoeia. The game is livened up if the leader tries to confuse the players: calls the animal, and looks at the child who plays a completely different role. Attention is directed to the duration and clarity of consonant and vowel sounds.

Exercise number 2. “Trumpeter”.

Children bring to the face clenched cams, having them in front of each other. As you exhale slowly blow into the "tube". A speech therapist praises those who have been able to blow the trumpet the longest.

Exercise number 3. “Ax”.

The kids are standing. The legs are shoulder-width apart, the arms are down, and the fingers of the hands are locked with a “lock”. Quickly raise your hands - inhale, lean forward, slowly lowering the “heavy ax”, say - oh! - on a long expiration.

Exercise number 4. “Crow”.

The children are sitting. Arms are lowered along the body. Quickly raise your arms through the sides up - inhale, slowly lower your arms - exhale. Say: car!

Exercise number 5. "Geese".

The children are sitting. Hands of bent arms are pressed to shoulders. Take a quick breath, then slowly tilt the torso down, take your elbows back, on a long exhale say: ha. Keep your head straight. Return to the starting position - inhale. On the exhale, utter go, gy.

Complex breathing exercises.

Medium group

Exercise number 1. "Let's play belly".

Purpose: the formation of diaphragmatic respiration.

In the supine position, the children lay their hands on their stomachs, inhale deeply - while the tummy is inflated, then exhale - the tummy retracts. To make the exercise even more interesting, you can put some small toy on your stomach. When the child dies, the toy with the belly rises, and on the exhale, on the contrary, drops down - as if she is swinging on a swing. The second option. In the standing position, children perform a deep breath without lifting their shoulders, and then exhale, controlling the movements of the abdomen with their hands.

Exercise number 2. "Learn by smell."

Objective: to develop a deep long breath, the development of smell.

Children take turns sniffing, such as flowers, trying to remember their smell. An adult asks the child to close his eyes and brings one of the flowers to him, offering to determine by smell what kind of flower in front of him. The child must take a deep long breath with his nose, not raising his shoulders, and then exhale and name the guessed flower. In order for the child to take a deep diaphragmatic breath, an adult first shows himself how to smell a flower. And then, holding the flower in the face of the baby, the teacher asks the child to put both handles on his stomach and thus control his breath.

Exercise number 3. "Spout and mouth teach breathe."

Objective: the differentiation of inhalation and exhalation through the nose and mouth, the development of attention.

A child learns to control his inhale and exhale, exercising them in different ways. First, the child inhales with the nose and exhalation with the nose (2-4 times), pointing with the index finger to the nose; and, inhaling with the mouth, brings the palm to the mouth, but does not touch, but only tactilely controls the air stream coming out of the mouth. The second option. Similar exercises are performed: inhale with your mouth - exhale with your mouth (palm is brought to your mouth) and inhale with your mouth - exhale with your nose (during inhalation the child opens her mouth, and during exhalation closes and shows her nose with the index finger).

Exercise number 4. "Throw the ball into the goal."

Objective: the development of a long, strong, targeted expiration, the development of the eye. An adult shows the children how to blow on the “ball” in order to drive it into the toy gates. Children take turns playing the exercise. The winner is the one who managed to send the “ball” into the goal with one exhalation.

Exercise number 5. "Let's go".

The goal: the development of a long smooth oral expiration.

An adult shows children how to blow a bubble to make it buzz. To do this, the lower lip should slightly touch the edge of the neck, and the blown air jet “breeze” should be strong enough. Then, in turn, the children themselves blow their own bubbles, making a buzzing sound appear. In conclusion, the exercises all children blow at the same time. When playing around the exercise, you can offer the kids several options, when a buzz can mean a steamer signal, a locomotive, or a howling wind.
You can use the bubble as a musical instrument, causing it to hum at the signal of the teacher during the performance of specially selected music.

Complex breathing exercises.

Senior group.

Exercise number 1. "Breathing in different ways."

Starting position - sitting on a chair straight or standing:

1. Inhale and exhale through the nose (breath fast, not very deep, exhale long).

2. Inhale through the nose, exhale through the mouth.

3. Inhale through the mouth, exhale through the nose.

4. Inhale and exhale through one half of the nose, exhale through the other (alternately).

5. Inhale through one half of the nose, exhale through the other (alternately).

6. Inhale through the nose, slow exhalation through the nose with a boost at the end.

7. Inhale through the nose, exhale through loose lips.

8. Inhale through the nose, exhale through the nose with pushes.

Exercise number 2. "Candle".

Slow expiration training while blowing on an imaginary or real candle flame. Focus on the belly. Slowly blow on the “flame”. It deviates, try to keep the flame during expiration in a deflected position.

Instead of a candle, you can take a strip of paper 2-3 cm wide and 10 cm long. Place your left palm between the rib cage and stomach, take a strip of paper in the right palm, use it as a candle, and blow it calmly, slowly and evenly. The paper will deviate, if the exhalation is even, then it will be in the deflected position until the end of the exhalation. Pay attention to the movement of the diaphragm - the left hand during the exhalation “slowly sinks”. Repeat 2-3 times.

Exercise number 3. "Stubborn candle".

Training intense intense exhalation. Imagine a candle of a large size, you understand that it will be difficult for you to repay it, but you should definitely do this. Breathe in, hold your breath for a second and blow it to the candle, the flame deflected but did not go out. Blow harder, harder. Still!

Feel palm movement of the diaphragm? Do you feel how the lower abdomen was pulled? This exercise gives you the opportunity to feel the active movements of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Repeat 2-3 times.

Exercise number 4. "Extinguish 3,4,5,6, ... 10 candles."

On one exhalation, “extinguish” 3 candles, dividing your exhalation into three portions. Now imagine that you have 5 candles. Do not try to inhale as much air as possible. Let the volume remain the same, just every portion of the air on the exhale will be less. With the help of static and dynamic breathing exercises, the abdominal muscles and the muscles of the diaphragm are trained. These exercises can be used in a complex of morning exercises.

Exercise number 5. “Belly dance”.

Bend your upper body forward at a 45-degree angle, and place your hands on your lower back with your thumbs forward. Look in front of you, back straight, shoulders turned. Execution - simultaneously with the exhalation, the abdomen is drawn into the p-fff, then a reflexive inhalation occurs, the abdomen moves forward. Repeat 3-5 times.

Training exercises for the development of intercostal respiratory muscles. Recall that on how intercostal respiratory muscles are developed, the filling of the middle part of the lungs with air depends.

Complex breathing exercises.

Preparatory group.

Exercise number 1. "Fragrant rose."

Starting position - standing, focus on the ribs. Place your palms on the ribs on either side of the chest. Execution - imagine that you smell a fragrant rose. Slowly inhale through the nose - note how the ribs of the chest spread apart. You feel it with your palms, and now exhale your ribs are down and your palms too. The belly and shoulders remain motionless. Remember that all attention is only on the ribs, since you want to train the intercostal muscles. Breaths should be shallow but full. Repeat 3-4 times.

Exercise number 2. "Exhale - inhale."

Starting position - standing or sitting on a chair. Execution - after a vigorous exhale on p-fff ... raise your hands, lead them over your head and lean back, inhale, then bend forward, reach the floor and mentally count to 15 - this is inhale.

Exercise number 3. “Singing sounds”.

Table. And, uh, oh, u, y, e, i, u, y. Say this table several times, each time on one exhalation, first in front of the mirror and silently, then in a whisper, then without a mirror out loud, but do not press the voice.

Exercise number 4. "Bird".

Starting position, legs together, arms along the body. On the count, once you raise your hands through the sides up - inhale, hold your breath for one count, then slowly lower your hands through the sides - exhale on the lingering sound of pfff, ssss. Repeat 2 times.

Exercise number 5. "Funny steps."

Walking around the room or in the fresh air. We take a breath in one step, a delay of one account, an exhalation in 4 steps. Every 2-3 days, increase the expiration time by 1 count. After 1 month to learn to exhale 10-15 steps.

“Gymnastics for the brain”

Regular training in slow breathing is a good way to increase the strength of the protective mechanisms that protect the brain from inadequate blood supply. Pinching and holding of breath, accompanied by a decrease in oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood, activates appropriate mechanisms, including reflex vasodilation and an increase in cerebral blood flow. Speech, diaphragmatic rib-breathing, in which the breath is short and the breath is long (1:15; 1:20) trains these defense mechanisms, thereby playing a physiological role in enhancing mental performance.

Set of exercises

Exercise number 1. “Tilt forward”.

Starting position - legs shoulder-width apart, arms raised above the head. Take a quiet breath and exhale, then, holding the breath, bend over, reaching the floor with your hands. Take a few (5-7) tilts until you feel a sense of lack of air, then take the starting position, inhale and exhale, hold your breath again, then repeat the tilts again.

After doing - quiet walking without holding your breath. Repeat the exercise 2 times.

Exercise number 2. "Squats".

Same as in the first exercise, but instead of bending the body, squats are done. Repeat 2 times.

Exercise number 3. "Direct pendulum".

Swinging the body forward and back. Starting position - legs shoulder-width apart, arms at 30 degrees, back straight. A sharp “braking” and a fast tilting back, a sharp “braking” and again bending forward, and so 15-20 times. Breathing is arbitrary. Movement is performed continuously.

Exercise number 4. "The lateral pendulum."

Swinging torso from side to side. Starting position - standing. Feet together, hands on the belt. Quickly tilt the torso to the left, stop abruptly, tilt the torso to the right - sharp braking, and so 15-20 times. Movement is continuous, breathing is not delayed.

Consistency and systematic - a necessary condition for setting phrenic breathing. Children should do breathing exercises intelligently, not mechanically.

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