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Valueology as a science, its goals and content

VALEOLOGY (valeo, Latin. - hello, be healthy, logos, Greek. - learning, science) - the science of healthy health. This term was first introduced by I.I. Brekhman in 1981-82. Somewhat later, other authors (Yu.P. Lisitsin, V.P. Petlenko et al., 1987) proposed another term for the name of this science - SANOLOGY (from Latin sanus - healthy). Currently, this term is used when considering the medical aspects of valeology, i.e. sanology is the doctrine of measures and mechanisms of the body's fight against the disease, the doctrine of recovery.

• What caused the emergence of yet another new science about man and the ever-increasing need for its study?

• Someone estimated that about 800 scientific disciplines are being comprehensively studied by a person as an integrated system, of which almost 500 are in the natural science cycle, the rest are humanitarian, social, and technical. Moreover, if we take as 100% all the knowledge accumulated by mankind in the entire history of its development, then about 90% will comprise information on inanimate nature and only 10% of the information is related to living nature, including less than 1% about man. We know more about the world that surrounds us than about ourselves, about our body.

• Moreover, in these sciences, a person as an object of cognition is considered from different angles of view, and therefore objectively torn into many parts (with the possible exception of philosophy). These parts almost do not fit, because representatives of each science see in man only their subject. From this perspective, the emergence of valeology, a science that has absorbed and absorbs so much data about the multifaceted phenomenon of man from other sciences, should be considered natural.

• Directly in human health is medicine, which has a long history and has achieved considerable success. The number of doctors in our state is 2 times higher than this figure in many developed countries of the world. But no mass of doctors makes our people healthy - statistics mercilessly emphasizes the deterioration in the health status of the entire population of Ukraine:

A negative population growth is observed (mortality exceeds fertility, the population decreases by 0.8-1% annually); By the end of 2005, there were less than 47 million of us.

Over the past 10 years, the average life expectancy of men has decreased by 4.5 years, women - by 2 years and is approximately 62 years (for comparison - people live 15 years longer in Japan), i.e. we can talk about the depopulation and extinction of the Ukrainian people. 50% of men and 40% of women do not live to retirement age.

The number of births decreased by about 40% (over the past 10 years), relatively more often than before, births are observed in mothers under the age of 14-18 years (while children are born, as a rule, with health problems).

Child mortality is one of the first places in the world.

Maternal mortality during childbirth has doubled over the past 10 years.

Of the 4 pregnancies, only one proceeds without complications, stillbirths - 2-3 times more than in Europe, the number of premature babies over the past 10 years has increased 5 times

Of 10 newborns, 7 are born with malformations.

Over 5 years, the incidence of teenage girls has increased 1.4 times (and these are expectant mothers).

Among schoolchildren, only every 9th is recognized as healthy (in the city of Nikolaev)

The number of children with disabilities is growing (in the city of Nikolaev - by 9% per year ().

Every 17th woman of productive age has psycho-neurological disorders, every 6th man is a chronic alcoholic.

The incidence of the population of Ukraine in recent years (according to official statistics) has increased by 27.3%. The main diseases are:

1. Cardiovascular (myocardial infarction, etc.)

2. Tumors (80% of them are associated with chemical carcinogens in the environment)

3. Diseases of the digestive system.

In addition, since 1995, there has been an increase in infectious diseases, now in Ukraine there is an epidemic of tuberculosis, HIV / AIDS, etc.

• The incidence of endocrine organs has increased (for example, diabetes mellitus occurs 1.6 times more often), childhood injuries are growing, etc.

• Modern medicine, being mainly the science of diseases, does not answer the question: what should a healthy person do to stay healthy?

• All this was the prerequisites for the emergence of an independent science of health - valeology.

• Valeology arose at the intersection of many sciences (medicine, psychology, pedagogy, hygiene, genetics, etc.) and is an integrative science.

• Valeology is a holistic system of knowledge about the formation, preservation, strengthening, updating and transfer of health to other generations.

• The object of valeology is a healthy person and a person in the “third” state.

• The subject of valeology is individual health.

• The main goal is the maximum use of inherited mechanisms and reserves of human life and maintaining a high level of adaptation of the body to the conditions of the external and internal environment.

• The main tasks and content of valeology:

• development of theoretical ideas about the essence of health, about the age and adaptive capabilities of the body;

• development of methods for quantifying health;

• the study of health factors that determine a person’s condition and his active longevity;

• restoration and optimization of human relations with nature;

• improvement of methods for treating borderline conditions, using natural means for this;

• development of methods for universal health education, fostering a health culture;

• the formation of an effective social ideal, according to which health is the highest value, and a healthy lifestyle is a natural form of behavior.

Valeology is fundamentally different from other sciences that study the state of human health, because in the sphere of interests of valeology is health and a healthy person, while medicine has a disease and a sick person, and hygiene has a living environment and human living conditions.

As an independent science, valeology has taken a definite place among other sciences. It is most closely associated with:

• biology, which forms an evolutionary view of the nature of health, creates an integral picture of the biological world;

• ecology, which forms knowledge about the aspects of the dependence of health on the environment;

• medicine (physiology, hygiene, sanology, etc.), developing health standards, a system of knowledge and practical activities to promote and maintain health;

• physical culture, which determines the laws of maintaining and improving physical development and physical fitness of a person as integral characteristics of health;

• psychology that studies the psychological aspects of health;

• pedagogy, developing goals, objectives, content and technology of valueology education and training;

• sociology revealing the social aspects of maintaining, strengthening and maintaining health and health risk factors;

• political science, which determines the role, strategy and tactics of the state in ensuring and shaping the health of its citizens;

• an economy that substantiates the economic aspects of ensuring health and the economic value of health in ensuring the welfare and security of the state;

• a philosophy that forms a dialectical worldview, which is important in a pragmatic assessment of the role of health in human beats;

• cultural studies, because an essential part of human culture is valeological culture;

• a history that traces the historical roots, the continuity of ways, means and methods of maintaining health in the world, region, and ethnic group;

• geography, which establishes the climatic and geographical and socio-economic specifics of the region, the relationship of a person with a habitat in the aspect of ensuring a healthy lifestyle, etc.

The connection of valeology with other sciences is bilateral. Using the data of related sciences, valeology itself can give significant results for the development and concretization of the problems of human knowledge.

• Despite his youth, valeology today is developing quite dynamically. It is customary to distinguish general and special valeology. Each of them includes two parts - theoretical (scientific aspects of valeology) and practical (technology for diagnosing health and healing the body).

• Currently, the following main areas of valeology can be distinguished:

• General valeology - represents the basis, methodology of valeology as a science, its place in the system of human sciences, subject, tasks, history of its formation, etc.
It can be considered as the trunk of a tree of science, from which branches, branches of valeology depart.

• Medical valeology determines the differences between health and illness and their diagnosis, studies methods of external health maintenance and disease prevention, methods for assessing the health status of populations, etc.

• Pedagogical valeology - studies the issues of training and education of a person who has a solid attitude towards health and a healthy lifestyle.

• Age-specific valeology studies the characteristics of the age-related development of human health, its relationship with environmental and internal factors in various age periods and adaptation to living conditions.

• Professional valeology studies issues related to the problem of vocational guidance (taking into account individual typological characteristics of a person), considers the features of the influence of professional factors on human health, determines methods and means of professional rehabilitation.

• Family valeology studies the role and place of the family, each of its members in the formation of health, develops ways and means of ensuring the health of each generation and the whole family. Apparently, this section of valeology has a great future, because health formation (from preparation for childbirth to the development of a conscious attitude to health) can most consistently be carried out in the family.

• Environmental valeology explores the impact on the health of natural factors and the effects of anthropogenic changes in nature, determines the behavior of a person in the emerging environmental conditions in order to maintain health.

• Social valueology aims at studying human health in society, in its diverse social relations with people and society.

• Probably, over time, further differentiation of valeology as a science will occur.

• As a subject matter, valeology is a body of knowledge about health and a healthy lifestyle. It can be preschool, school, university, postgraduate.

• What caused the need to study this discipline by students of pedagogical specialties? First of all, the circumstances that determine the professional activity of a teacher:

• First, the teacher must be able to maintain the health of his future pupils. The existing education system in itself is a risk factor for student health. Today it is known that during the period of study in high school the number of healthy children decreases by 4 times, the number of children with myopia increases by 10 times, with neuropsychiatric disorders - by 2.5 times, the number of students with vegetative-vascular dystonia increases by 16 times , 2 times - with intestinal diseases. It has long been time to make the medical principle of Hippocrates "Ne noceas - Do no harm" as the norm in the work of everyone who is involved in the upbringing and education of children. There is an urgent need for the development of school valeology, which is possible only after mastering the fundamental provisions of the general valeogy.

• Secondly, in order to be able to maintain their health. After all, the teacher’s work only at first glance can be considered easy (if we compare it with the work of a miner).

The pedagogical profession, the teacher’s labor are intellectual forms of labor. From the psychophysiological point of view, this is an extremely responsible, socially significant activity in which the element of creativity is great.

However, not all conditions in which pedagogical activity is carried out can be recognized as favorable. Most definitely, some of them contain risk factors and have an adverse effect on the human body.

The main risk factors for teachers are:

1 high density of interpersonal contacts and the possibility of conflicts if it is necessary to carry out the planned amount of work in a strictly regulated period of time, which requires a certain, under an hour, significant stress on many body systems and causes increased psycho-emotional stress associated with the need for constant self-control, attention, emotional arousal;

2 significant voice load;

3 static load with a slight general muscular and motor load;

4 a large amount of intense visual work;

5 high density of epidemic contacts;

6 lack of a stable daily regimen;

7 load on the same centers of the cerebral cortex, a sharp redistribution of cerebral blood flow, lead to a sharp redistribution of cerebral blood flow, hence frequent insomnia (the first sign of overwork); changes and electroencephalograms (EEG), and electrocardiograms (ECG) are noted.



Each of the listed risk factors for pedagogical work can cause a professional or professionally caused disease of the nervous system (neurosis-like states and neurosis), voice organs (acute and chronic pharyngitis, laryngitis, paresis of the vocal folds, singing nodules, etc.), musculoskeletal system (osteochondrosis of the cervical and lumbar spine, sciatica), vascular system (varicose veins of the lower extremities, hemorrhoids), infectious diseases. In addition, such pathologies as contact dermatitis in the hands due to chalk, allergic forms of rhinitis (runny nose) and bronchial asthma in chemistry teachers, when the reagents used in the experiments are carried out, and chronic mercury intoxication, can be of professional origin. physics teachers with prolonged use in the educational process of instruments containing mercury.

•? Thirdly, the teacher must have a good culture of health in order to teach this to schoolchildren.

• Health culture (valeological culture) is a part of a person’s general culture, it is a conscious system of actions and relationships to one’s health and the health of other people, ie the ability to live without harming your body, but bringing benefits to it (it is important to remember that a culture of health does not imply a simple “gathering” of useful recommendations and knowledge, but their active use in everyday practice).

• Valeological culture also implies the ability to disseminate valeological knowledge. Teachers should educate schoolchildren on persistent motivation for health and a healthy lifestyle (through programmed educational material, pedagogical work with parents, as well as a personal example with constant communication).

• Thus, the need for the interconnection of educational and educational and educational areas in schools becomes apparent. The Valeological service of the school can provide such an interconnection.

• Valeological service is a service of forming and ensuring human health. It does not replace the medical service, is not an alternative to it.

• Organization of valeological service activities in a school institution is represented by the following areas:

• Creating a valueological environment in the school, taking into account pedagogical, psychological, hygienic and social factors;

• Diagnostic screening - examination of a significant number of children by express methods and obtaining an appropriate opinion on health status; identification of “risk groups” and further care for them;

• Monitoring student health - long-term follow-up from first to graduation;

• Lifestyle correction - the formation of students' motivation for a healthy lifestyle, valeological education of parents, helping them to create optimal conditions in the family;

• Selection of valeogenic technologies (individually for students), the creation of physical education sections, psychological training groups, massage rooms, a phyto-cabinet, classes in the pool, etc.

• The activity of the valeological service is focused primarily on children, but with the indispensable valeological activity of teachers and in accordance with their health and lifestyle goals and objectives of the educational process.

• The main core of the valeological service at the school is made up of specially trained valeologist educators working together with a doctor, psychologist, lawyer, and social pedagogue, however, the entire school staff is involved in the service, provided it is vale literate.

• Abroad, the analogue of valeology is the direction of "health promotion" and "health education".

• Таким образом, валеология - это самостоятельная молодая наука (воспринимаемая не всеми однозначно), для которой эра «великих открытий» только начинается.
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