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The effect of various doses of alcohol on the human condition

Before we start talking about alcohol as one of the health risk factors, we should apparently pay attention to the fact that the adverse effects associated with taking alcohol occur even with a single use of the smallest doses of alcohol. And this is not surprising, these are the pharmacological properties of alcohol, causing intoxication.

The typical pattern of intoxication varies significantly with the dose of alcohol taken. So, for example, with a mild degree of intoxication, in some cases a person’s condition is accompanied by a decrease in mood, a desire for solitude, irritability, in others - there is a desire to communicate with others. What is important is the fact that a state of mild intoxication causes a change in the usual emotional background inherent in a particular person.

The behavior of the intoxicated person also changes: his speech becomes excessively loud, accented, and his movements become sharp, impetuous, their accuracy and coordination are impaired. Thinking is accelerated, but its depth, consistency and logic are reduced. The well-known liveliness of thinking in a drunken person is associated with an acceleration of associative processes. However, this phenomenon is by no means normal, since the quality of thinking is declining, and surface associations and primitive sensations are most often noted.

Actually, a change in the behavior of its usual forms occurs as a result of such shifts in the emotional background, in the processes of thinking. Of course, it becomes less thoughtful, more reflective. Drunk with less criticism perceives the surrounding, reduces the possibility of a real assessment. Already in a state of mild intoxication, there is a risk of unpredictable emotional and behavioral reactions of the drunk person, fraught with conflicts with others, or actions that threaten him himself - his health. Indeed, the impulsiveness of actions and actions is facilitated, often they directly follow any thought that has arisen.

As a rule, in a state of mild intoxication, redness is noted, and less often - blanching of the skin of the drinker, increased pulse rate, appetite and sexual desire are often enhanced. All this indicates disinhibition under the influence of alcohol of the subcortical brain centers due to inhibition of inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex.

Larger doses of alcohol cause a moderate degree of intoxication, when the inhibitory effect of alcohol begins to spread to the subcortical centers of the brain.
Moreover, the state and behavior of a person differ significantly from those described above.

So, the elevated mood, often characteristic of a mild degree of intoxication, is often replaced by prolonged transient, or short-term states of irritability, pickiness, dissatisfaction with others, resentment. Due to the lack of control over their own emotions, the experiences of the drinker can easily be realized in actions directed against others. Characteristically, this happens without much thought on his part. And with a sufficiently pronounced state of intoxication, a person not only loses the ability to assess the situation as a whole, but also his place in it, relationships with others. And therefore, his actions become dangerous for the most intoxicated and for the people around him.

Such manifestations of a moderate degree of intoxication indicate a deeper inhibition of the cerebral cortex and a parallel process of inhibition of the subcortical centers of the brain. The inhibitory effect of alcohol on the subcortical centers is manifested, in particular, in the fact that the intoxicated speech becomes fuzzy, blurry - articulation is disrupted, like "porridge in the mouth." The vagueness of actions becomes noticeable. The coordinated work of antagonist muscles, which ensures the coordination of his movements in humans, is normally disturbed. Uncertainty, unsteadiness of a walk in a state of intoxication are exacerbated by a disturbance in the function of the vestibular apparatus that regulates the state of equilibrium.

With severe alcohol intoxication, the perception of the environment is significantly more difficult. So, for example, the threshold of auditory and visual perception increases: only strong sounds “reach” intoxicated, he sees mainly more illuminated objects. At the same time, disorders of the ability to correctly evaluate time, distance, and speed are also noted.

The average degree of intoxication is usually replaced by deep sleep. Waking up, a person usually experiences a number of unpleasant bodily and mental sensations - fatigue, weakness, lethargy, apathy, lack of appetite, dry mouth, increased thirst and, as a rule, decreased mood. Mental and physical performance after a pronounced state of intoxication is significantly reduced.
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The effect of various doses of alcohol on the human condition

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