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Question 9 Bites of snakes.
Acute poisoning is due to the specific action of snake venom - a product of the poisonous glands of the snake.
By the nature of the effect on the body:
1. neurotoxic - they have a curariform effect, stop neuromuscular transmission, resulting in death from paralysis;
2. hemovasotoxic - cause vascular spasm, followed by vascular permeability, and then swelling of the tissues and internal organs;
The clinical picture. The severity of intoxication varies within very large limits, which depends on the type of snake that has bitten (tropical and subtropical species are more dangerous), its size, degree of irritation, the amount of poison introduced during the bite, age, body weight and initial state of health of the victim (children and patients suffer intoxication harder), the localization of the bite, the degree of vascularization of tissues, in
who got poison, timeliness and correctness of treatment.
Immediately after the bite, provide the victim with complete rest in a horizontal position. Suck poison! If necessary, transfer the victim to a convenient, weather-protected place. Independent movement of the victim is unacceptable!
In the first seconds after the bite, pressing with your fingers, open the wound and begin to vigorously suck out the poison with your mouth. Bloody fluid periodically spit. If there is little saliva or there are sores on the lips, in the mouth, you should put a little water in your mouth (water dilutes the poison) and aspirate the poison alternately for 15 minutes continuously. This allows you to remove from the body of the victim from 20 to 50 percent of the poison. For a caregiver, aspiration of the poison is completely harmless, even if it has wounds or abrasions in its mouth. The wound must be disinfected, apply a sterile dressing. Limit the mobility of the victim. When biting a leg, bandage it to a healthy one and, putting something under the knees, slightly lift them. When biting in the arm, lock it in a bent position. Let the victim drink more tea, broth, water. Increased water consumption contributes to the removal of poison from the body. Try to immediately bring the victim to the nearest medical facility. It is advisable to find the snake and deliver it to the doctor for identification.
If there is serum, then inject it intramuscularly (preferably in the back) no later than 30 minutes after the bite. With a bite of a viper, muzzle, the introduction of serum is impractical.
It is impossible:
Cut the bite site. Cuts lead to infections, damage to veins, tendons.
Cauterize a wound with objects heated by fire, coal from a fire, gunpowder. The venomous teeth of snakes reach a centimeter in length, the poison is injected deep into the muscle tissue. It is dangerous and useless to burn the bite site with caustic potassium, nitric, sulfuric and carbolic acids. Do not apply a tourniquet above the bite site. The application of a tourniquet on the affected limb worsens the condition of the victim, provokes gangrenous phenomena (especially with bites of viper, vipers), increases the possibility of death.
Alcohol is not an antidote, on the contrary, it complicates the removal of poison from the body, enhances its effect.
Bites of bees, bumblebees, wasps
If a person is stung by a bee, wasp or hornet, then first of all it is necessary to remove the sting and squeeze out the poison from the wound. Wipe the bitten places with iodine, vodka, hydrogen peroxide or ammonia. If swelling or swelling appears, make cold lotions from a solution of boric acid (1 teaspoon per glass of water) or a lead lotion.
When a bee bites into the tongue, choking can occur. In such cases, the victim is put pieces of ice, ice cream in his mouth or rinsed with cold water.
Freshly urinated urine is washed at the sting or bite site and a tampon soaked in urine is tied. Salted water (1 teaspoon per 1 cup of water) is an effective remedy. It is recommended to use onion or garlic juice, fresh juice or calendula tincture, chopped plantain leaves, juice from fresh thyme leaves.
To reduce pain, you can grind in the hands and attach fresh parsley leaves to the bite site. With multiple bites and the appearance of signs of poisoning, it is recommended to drink 200-350 ml of a honey-alcohol mixture (100g of honey, 200 ml of vodka 10 g of ascorbic acid per 500 ml of water) every three hours.
If, after stinging, vomiting, shortness of breath, convulsions and other symptoms of severe poisoning or a pronounced allergic reaction appear, you should immediately seek medical help - such conditions are life-threatening.
Mosquito bites, midges
2 tablespoons of wild rosemary pour one cup of boiling water, leave for 40 minutes, strain. Moisten a gauze napkin in the infusion, squeeze slightly and apply to the affected area. It is recommended to attach a piece of ice or a metal coin to the site of the bite, after lowering it in cold water.
Places of bites by mosquitoes, flies, gadflies are wiped with ammonia or moistened with soap. You can lubricate the bite with a solution of hydrogen peroxide or cologne. Apply lilac leaves, pulp from the leaves of parsley or plantain to the itchy areas of the skin.
If a sucking tick is found, it is necessary to carefully pull it out with smooth movements swinging from side to side so as not to crush it. The wound from a tick bite should be treated with tincture of iodine or alcohol.
Be sure to consult a doctor, and send the tick for examination.
If the tick cannot be removed, we recommend the following:
Put a drop of vegetable oil on it or generously grease with a fat cream. Without air access, the tick quickly loses its life, it is easier to remove it.
Hold the needle tip for several minutes in a flame, and then touch the tick with the hot tip of the needle.
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Question 9 Bites of snakes.
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