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Question 9 Bites of snakes.

Acute poisoning is due to the specific action of snake venom - a product of the poisonous glands of the snake.

By the nature of the effect on the body:

1. neurotoxic - they have a curariform effect, stop neuromuscular transmission, resulting in death from paralysis;

2. hemovasotoxic - cause vascular spasm, followed by vascular permeability, and then swelling of the tissues and internal organs;

The clinical picture. The severity of intoxication varies within very large limits, which depends on the type of snake that has bitten (tropical and subtropical species are more dangerous), its size, degree of irritation, the amount of poison introduced during the bite, age, body weight and initial state of health of the victim (children and patients suffer intoxication harder), the localization of the bite, the degree of vascularization of tissues, in

who got poison, timeliness and correctness of treatment.

Immediately after the bite, provide the victim with complete rest in a horizontal position. Suck poison! If necessary, transfer the victim to a convenient, weather-protected place. Independent movement of the victim is unacceptable!

In the first seconds after the bite, pressing with your fingers, open the wound and begin to vigorously suck out the poison with your mouth. Bloody fluid periodically spit. If there is little saliva or there are sores on the lips, in the mouth, you should put a little water in your mouth (water dilutes the poison) and aspirate the poison alternately for 15 minutes continuously. This allows you to remove from the body of the victim from 20 to 50 percent of the poison. For a caregiver, aspiration of the poison is completely harmless, even if it has wounds or abrasions in its mouth. The wound must be disinfected, apply a sterile dressing. Limit the mobility of the victim. When biting a leg, bandage it to a healthy one and, putting something under the knees, slightly lift them. When biting in the arm, lock it in a bent position. Let the victim drink more tea, broth, water. Increased water consumption contributes to the removal of poison from the body. Try to immediately bring the victim to the nearest medical facility. It is advisable to find the snake and deliver it to the doctor for identification.

If there is serum, then inject it intramuscularly (preferably in the back) no later than 30 minutes after the bite. With a bite of a viper, muzzle, the introduction of serum is impractical.

It is impossible:

Cut the bite site. Cuts lead to infections, damage to veins, tendons.

Cauterize a wound with objects heated by fire, coal from a fire, gunpowder. The venomous teeth of snakes reach a centimeter in length, the poison is injected deep into the muscle tissue. It is dangerous and useless to burn the bite site with caustic potassium, nitric, sulfuric and carbolic acids. Do not apply a tourniquet above the bite site. The application of a tourniquet on the affected limb worsens the condition of the victim, provokes gangrenous phenomena (especially with bites of viper, vipers), increases the possibility of death.

Alcohol is not an antidote, on the contrary, it complicates the removal of poison from the body, enhances its effect.

Insect bites

Bites of bees, bumblebees, wasps

If a person is stung by a bee, wasp or hornet, then first of all it is necessary to remove the sting and squeeze out the poison from the wound. Wipe the bitten places with iodine, vodka, hydrogen peroxide or ammonia. If swelling or swelling appears, make cold lotions from a solution of boric acid (1 teaspoon per glass of water) or a lead lotion.

When a bee bites into the tongue, choking can occur. In such cases, the victim is put pieces of ice, ice cream in his mouth or rinsed with cold water.

Freshly urinated urine is washed at the sting or bite site and a tampon soaked in urine is tied. Salted water (1 teaspoon per 1 cup of water) is an effective remedy. It is recommended to use onion or garlic juice, fresh juice or calendula tincture, chopped plantain leaves, juice from fresh thyme leaves.

To reduce pain, you can grind in the hands and attach fresh parsley leaves to the bite site. With multiple bites and the appearance of signs of poisoning, it is recommended to drink 200-350 ml of a honey-alcohol mixture (100g of honey, 200 ml of vodka 10 g of ascorbic acid per 500 ml of water) every three hours.

If, after stinging, vomiting, shortness of breath, convulsions and other symptoms of severe poisoning or a pronounced allergic reaction appear, you should immediately seek medical help - such conditions are life-threatening.

Mosquito bites, midges

2 tablespoons of wild rosemary pour one cup of boiling water, leave for 40 minutes, strain. Moisten a gauze napkin in the infusion, squeeze slightly and apply to the affected area. It is recommended to attach a piece of ice or a metal coin to the site of the bite, after lowering it in cold water.

Places of bites by mosquitoes, flies, gadflies are wiped with ammonia or moistened with soap. You can lubricate the bite with a solution of hydrogen peroxide or cologne. Apply lilac leaves, pulp from the leaves of parsley or plantain to the itchy areas of the skin.

Tick ​​suction

If a sucking tick is found, it is necessary to carefully pull it out with smooth movements swinging from side to side so as not to crush it. The wound from a tick bite should be treated with tincture of iodine or alcohol.

Be sure to consult a doctor, and send the tick for examination.

If the tick cannot be removed, we recommend the following:

Put a drop of vegetable oil on it or generously grease with a fat cream. Without air access, the tick quickly loses its life, it is easier to remove it.

Hold the needle tip for several minutes in a flame, and then touch the tick with the hot tip of the needle.
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Question 9 Bites of snakes.

  1. Snake bites
    Of all the species of poisonous snakes in our region, the common viper is found. Clinical diagnosis The clinical picture consists of local signs and general manifestations due to the resorptive action of the poison. With viper bites, two deep puncture wounds are clearly visible at the site of the bite. In the first minutes after the bite, hyperemia occurs, then swelling and petechial-bruising hemorrhages,
  2. Venomous Snake Bites
    250 species of snakes are poisonous. More common are vipers (gyurza, efa, viper), as well as cobra. The venom of a poisonous snake is usually accompanied by severe poisoning of the whole organism with multifaceted symptoms. Of the general symptoms, weakness, nausea, vomiting, a weak and frequent pulse, cold sweat are noted. Against the background of the development of deep collapse, death occurs. Locally developing
  3. Snake Bites (Vipers vulgaris)
    DIAGNOSIS Pain, increasing edema, hyperemia, wound with or without necrosis at the site of the bite are characteristic. Weakness, drowsiness, headache, cramps, anaphylactic reactions with resorptive action. EMERGENCY HELP 1. Follow point 1 of the general algorithm. 2. Diphenhydramine (diphenhydramine *) 1% solution of 1 ml intramuscularly or promethazine (pipolfen *), or chloropyramine (suprastin *),
  4. Bites of animals (wild, domestic, insects, snakes)
    First aid. Wounds from animal bites are treated, following the same principles as with other types of injuries. At the same time, a bite wound is always considered infected, since rabies cannot be excluded in a wild animal, cat or dog. The bitten limb above the bite is pulled with a scarf or belt and squeezed out as much blood as possible. The wound is treated with a solution.
  5. First aid for snake bites
    Despite the fact that the number of victims of snake bites is small, it is necessary to take certain precautions, you should carefully monitor shoes, avoid walking barefoot in areas where poisonous snakes are found, because most often the bite is applied to the leg. It is necessary to be able to distinguish poisonous snakes from harmless, to be able to provide first aid to victims if necessary. Distinguish
  6. Poisons of snakes and insects
    The poisonous onset of substances secreted by snakes are highly active enzymes and toxic proteins. With bites, enzymes enter the lymph and bloodstream, disrupt normal biochemical processes and vital functions of the body. Poisonous snakes of two species live on the territory of Russia: pithead (Asian, eastern and rocky muzzle) and vipers (common and steppe). Their poisons are having
  7. First aid for bites of poisonous insects, snakes and rabid animals
    In the summer, a person can be bitten by a bee, wasp, bumblebee, snake, and in some areas - a scorpion, tarantula or other poisonous insects. The wound from such bites is small and resembles an injection with a needle, but with a bite, poison penetrates through it, which, depending on its strength and quantity, either acts first on the body area around the bite or immediately causes general poisoning. Venomous Snake Bites
  8. Bites
    Snake bites (vipers, gyurza, cobras) CLINICAL PICTURE Sharp pain at the bite site, redness, then blue skin at the bite site, swelling quickly spreading with multiple, sometimes merging hemorrhages. Blood loss and plasma loss can reach significant volumes. With cobra bites, local changes are less pronounced, but depression of consciousness increases faster and
    About 400 species of poisonous snakes live on Earth. 58 species of snakes live in the CIS countries and only 10 of them are poisonous and dangerous, in Russia there are even fewer. However, they also cause considerable damage to livestock. In Russia, snake bites are most often observed in the republics of Transcaucasia, the Far East, Siberia, the Middle Urals and the Kaliningrad region. Vivid signs of the difference between poisonous snakes and non-poisonous
  10. Insect bites
    The most dangerous bites of scorpions, arachnids: karakurt, tarantula. Symptoms are the same, with slight variations: pain at the site of the bite, redness, and then the development of symptoms of intoxication: nausea, vomiting, convulsions, impaired cardiovascular activity and breathing. The patient loses consciousness. In severe poisoning, death may occur. The bitten is given symptomatic treatment. Bites
  11. Bites
    Animal Bite Cause Damage to the body and limbs of a pet’s teeth. Symptoms Traces of teeth on the skin, wounds, pain, bleeding. First aid Do not try to immediately stop the bleeding, as it helps to remove the saliva of the animal from the wound. The wound should be washed with soap and water, the skin around it should be treated with an antiseptic solution, iodine, solution
  12. Insect bites
    Usually insects do not actively attack a person, they are aggressive only when a person approaches their nests. A person can tolerate up to 500 insect bites, but in 1 out of 100 people even one bite can cause death. The most dangerous bites of hornet wasp, honey bee, gadfly and bumblebee. In people with hypersensitivity, an insect bite can cause an allergic or anaphylactic reaction.
  13. Animal bites
    Most often, domestic dogs bite, less often cats and wild animals. The bites of rabid animals (rabies infection) and snakes (snake poisoning) pose a great danger. Pathophysiology • Most often people bite and scratch pets - cats, dogs. It is extremely rare that they are attacked by wild animals (in the areas of rabies endemic - foxes). The result of an animal attack is usually
  14. Tick ​​bites
    Ticks of the ixodidae species can be a potential source of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection. Transmission occurs when a tick bites. Tick ​​bites usually cause local inflammation and itching. Emergency care: 1. Remove the tick with tweezers and not with your hands (danger of tearing off and leaving the head of the insect in the body of the victim). Pre-grease the tick with gasoline (kerosene
    Help with mosquito bites. At the site of the mosquito bite, swelling, redness, itching, sometimes so intense, that the children become restless, sleep poorly. To reduce itching, it is necessary to wipe the bitten places with alcohol, cologne. Help with bites of bees and wasps. Poison, which causes swelling and redness of the skin, enters the child's body from a bee sting. Acute pain that
  16. Dog bites
    A dog can be a potential source of rabies virus infection in a child. Transmission is carried out by the bite and salivation of damaged skin. At the same time, infected animals can be infectious 10 days before the first signs of the disease appear in them. The most dangerous are bites in the head and face, and deep lacerations are also dangerous. Dog bite wounds like
    Most often, relatives bite the cats (see the sections “bite wounds” and “rabies”) or dogs, there are frequent cases of bite by poisonous snakes or arthropods. If you have not seen how this happened, then finding bite marks on the cat’s body is not an easy task, while measures to save the injured animal should be taken immediately. Symptoms: agitation, trembling, vomiting, loss of strength, profuse
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