Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Malignant skin tumors
There are many theories of cancer (embryonic, virogenogenetic, hereditary, somatic mutations, etc.). Malignant tumors are characterized by infiltrating growth with destruction of the surrounding tissue and metastasis. There are two types of skin cancer: basal cell and squamous.
Basal cell carcinoma, or basal cell carcinoma, occurs primarily in the elderly. It is localized in the upper half of the face (upper lip, auricles, nose, cheeks, nasolabial folds). It is characterized by slow growth and lack of metastases. There are several clinical options for basal cell carcinoma - superficial and invasive. Clinical manifestations begin with the appearance of a single flat or hemispherical form of a dense papule up to 0.5 cm in diameter, slightly pink or the color of normal skin. The papule grows very slowly in size; in the center, erosion or an ulcer is formed, covered with a bloody crust. With the invasive form of basal cell carcinoma, the ulcer penetrates and destroys the underlying tissue to the bone.
Squamous (spinocellular) cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is less common, men are more often ill. The disease is characterized by rapid growth and metastases, malignancy. The skin process is localized at the place of transition of the skin into the mucous membranes of the lips, genitals, on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. A dense node forms in the thickness of the skin, rapidly increasing in size, growing in the deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and undergoes decay with the formation of ulcers. The edges and bottom of the ulcer are dense. The general condition of the body is disturbed, cachexia develops.
Surgical treatment, radiation therapy.
Skin sarcoma develops at the age of over 30 and is localized on the trunk and extremities. The disease appears more often at the site of injuries, after radiation therapy, on fibromas, angiofibromas, lipomas. Clinical manifestations begin with the appearance of a speck, a dense nodule resembling a wart. Education gradually increases in size, becomes dense and bumpy. Sometimes sarcoma can grow into the epidermis and resembles the appearance of mushroom nodes or penetrate into deep tissues, hypodermis. Skin sarcomas ulcerate, infiltrate, inflame. Rarely metastasize, often by hematogenous route to the lungs, liver, skin, bones. The forecast is unfavorable.
Progressive recurrent dermatofibrosarcoma is more common in men on the skin of the abdomen, chest, limbs. It manifests itself as dense, flat dermal or hypodermal nodules, painless on palpation, resembling foci of plaque scleroderma. Subsequently, in their place very dense hemispherical tumors appear on the leg or wide base. Lymph nodes do not increase and metastasizes dermatofibrosarcoma in rare cases. According to the histological picture, spindle-shaped and polymorphic cell fibrosarcomas are distinguished.
Treatment consists in the use of radiation and chemotherapy, surgical intervention.
Melanoma is a malignant tumor that develops from pigment-forming cells. It is localized more often in areas of skin undergoing insolation, on the face, trunk, lower extremities. It often develops against the background of pigmented nevus. First, a spot resembling a large freckle appears, which gradually increases, thickens, redness and a stagnant corolla appear around. Then, nodules form on the surface of the spot. Pigmented nodules and radial growths (“satellites”) appear around the primary focus, indicating lymphogenous spread of the tumor and metastases. Regional lymph nodes increase. There are three main types of melanoma: superficially spreading, malignant lentigo and nodosum. Melanoma metastases spread lymphogenously or hematogenously. Surgical treatment with chemotherapy.
Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease of the skin and internal organs. There are 3 types of sarcoma:
2) due to immunosuppression, ionizing radiation, cytostatic drugs and corticosteroids in the treatment of cancer
3) Kaposi’s sarcoma caused by HIV infection.
It affects more often adult men, rarely children. The process is localized mainly on the skin of the feet, legs, back of the hands, less often on the auricles, cheeks, nose, back, abdomen, and penis. The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is affected up to 12% of cases and is localized on the soft and hard palate, cheeks, pharynx, larynx, and tongue.
The disease begins either with the appearance of reddish-cyanotic spots with clear boundaries and a smooth surface, or with papules of a pinkish-cyanotic color, soft consistency. Subsequently, tumor-like elements rise above the skin, the color of which acquires a bluish tint. In place of the tumors, deep and painful ulcers form, the bottom of which is covered with bloody - necrotic discharge and warty growths. Kaposi’s sarcoma is characterized by multifocal, prevalence and symmetry of rashes. Skin manifestations are accompanied by excruciating pains, swelling. Kaposi’s sarcoma can be a manifestation of AIDS, while it is characterized by a young age, the sudden appearance of common forms of papular and tumor-like formations, the absence of spotted rashes, atypical localization (head, neck, trunk, oral cavity), damage to internal organs and lymph nodes. The diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma should be confirmed by histological examination. All patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma should be screened for HIV infection.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Malignant skin tumors
- TUMOR GROWTH. TUMOR PROGRESSION. TUMOR MORPHOGENESIS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR TUMORS MARKERS. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATED MESENCHIMES
TUMOR GROWTH. TUMOR PROGRESSION. TUMOR MORPHOGENESIS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR TUMORS MARKERS. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVES
- MALIGNANT SKIN MELANOMA
Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, Arthur J. Sober, Martin S. Mime Primary malignant melanoma of the skin is the most common cause of death from all skin cancers, therefore, the identification of its early signs is a priority for any doctor, regardless of specialist profile. Every time the doctor has the opportunity to examine the patient’s skin, he should
- Malignant tumors
SARCOM is a malignant tumor from the mesenchymal tissue. Unlike sarcoma cancer, the first metastases are hematogenous. Histogenesis sarcomas are divided into a number of varieties. From fibrous tissue. 1. Fibrosarcoma. 2. Swelling dermatofibroma (malignant histiocytoma) - unlike other sarcomas, it is characterized by slow growth and does not give metastasis for a long time, although it grows
- Malignant tumors
Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses take third place in frequency among other malignant lesions of the upper respiratory tract (larynx and pharynx) and, according to published data, comprise 2 - 3% of malignant tumors of all localizations. Malignant tumors most often develop in the maxillary sinus. In second place in frequency are lattice maze tumors.
- Malignant tumors
In the upper respiratory tract, cancer is mainly found in various forms and rarely (about 3% in relation to malignant tumors of the ENT organs)
- Malignant pharyngeal tumors
The comparative incidence of pharyngeal cancers is high; carcinomas, lymphoepitheliomas, cytoblastomas, sarcomas, reticulocytomas, and mixed tumors are found among them. Men get sick more often than women, usually in middle age. K l and n and with to and to kartin and. The early symptoms of pharyngeal malignant tumors are poor and little characteristic. Light sensations may appear.
- Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses
Malignant diseases of this localization - cancer and isarcoma, as a rule, are primary. They are relatively rare, more often in middle-aged and elderly men. Most often, the primary malignant process affects the maxillary, then the ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Rarely, the nasal septum is the source of the malignant tumor. Malignancy
- Malignant tumors of the ear
Malignant tumors of the ear can be both primary, i.e. developed directly in a particular department of the ear, and arising from the germination of tumors from neighboring organs and tissues. In the outer and middle ear, cancer is more often diagnosed in adults, and sarcoma in children. Of the other species, there may be melanoma. The course of tumors of the outer ear is relatively slow, they look like
- Malignant tumors of the vulva and vagina
Vulvar cancer (RV) is found mainly in elderly women and accounts for 3-5% of all malignant diseases of the genitals. It develops against the background of involutive dystrophic processes. An important role in the occurrence of this pathology is given to metabolic and endocrine disorders and viral infection. Classification of PB by stages • Stage 0 - pre-invasive carcinoma. • I stage - tumor up to 2
- Malignant Intestinal Tumors
- these are pathological proliferation of atypical cells with an autonomous (not always) progressive irreversible nature of growth, which replace and infiltrate normal tissue. Classification of the Stage of cancer Stage 1 - a tumor of small size, localized in the thickness of the mucosa or submucosal layer, without metastases; Stage 2: a) a large tumor, but not more than a semicircle
- Malignant Epithelial Tumors
They are called cancer, or carcinoma. General characteristics. 1. Meet much more often than all other malignant tumors. 2. Often associated with previous diseases and conditions, which are called precancerous. 3. The development of many carcinomas (morphogenesis) is associated with previous changes in the epithelium - hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. 4. The only precancerous
- MALIGNANT BREAST TUMORS AND PREGNANCY
Among malignant neoplasms in women, breast cancer is one of the first places. In recent years, the incidence of a combination of pregnancy and cancer has increased. There are two aspects of this problem: cancer among pregnant women and pregnancy with cancer. Breast cancer in pregnant women occurs in 0.03-0.3% of cases, pregnancy with breast cancer - in 0.78-3.8%, and in some reports