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Abscesses and cellulitis
Tim Hackett, DVM, MS
1. What is the difference between abscess and cellulite?
Abscess is a limited collection of pus and decay products, surrounded by dense granulation tissue. Cellulite is a diffuse inflammation of soft tissues, while the infectious process spreads over fascial surfaces in the subcutaneous tissue.
2. Why do cats have subcutaneous abscesses more often than dogs?
Thin sharp teeth and the pugnacious character of cats are the reasons for the penetration of the resident microflora of the oral cavity under the skin. In cats, the skin is dense and elastic, which closes above the hole of a stab-contaminated wound. Subcutaneous exudate quickly turns into purulent, and purulent cavities form in places of bites. As a rule, they are found on the limbs, muzzle, back and at the base of the tail.
3. List the main systemic complications of focal infections.
In animals with common clinical manifestations of infection, fever and anorexia are usually observed. There is a risk of septicemia and shock.
In extensive foci of inflammation, leukocytes accumulate, so a relative leukopenia is observed in the blood. In mature and exposed abscesses, neutrophilia is determined by mature cell forms. Diffuse cellulitis often occurs with neutropenia and fever. From the source of infection, the bacteria spread by the hematogenous route, causing pneumonia and other infectious lesions of the organs and systems. A cascade of reactions involving inflammatory mediators leads to vasodilation, a decrease in blood pressure and the occurrence of circulatory failure, which underlies the mechanism for the development of septic shock.
4. What diseases should be excluded in animals with recurrent bacterial infections?
Cats living on the street, especially adult cats that fight with other individuals, have an increased risk of being infected with feline leukemia virus (ON) or = cat immunodeficiency tier (VIC). In such animals, severe leukemia is usually found with or without anemia. In the treatment of infected wounds, it is also necessary to exclude osteomyelitis, foreign bodies, tumors, infection with L-forms of bacteria, Nocardia and Mycobacterium spp., Goibic infection.
5. What is the difference between cellulite treatment and abscess treatment?
The main thing in the treatment of abscesses is surgical drainage of the abscess cavity. With good drainage, if the animal does not have any concomitant pathology, antibiotic therapy can be avoided. The peculiarity of cellulite is the diffuse spread of the process, therefore, immobilization, warm compresses and antibiotics are recommended. In animals with cellulitis, common manifestations of infection are often observed, therefore they are shown infusion therapy, antibacterial drugs and analgesics.
6. What complications of abscesses and cellulite require emergency care?
The nature of the complications of abscesses depends on the location. An abscess sometimes causes compression of vital organs. Pharyngeal abscesses can cause obstruction of the airways. Abscesses in the gastrointestinal tract or abdominal cavity cause intestinal obstruction. Infections are dangerous by the development of systemic complications, including septicemia and fever. Septic shock arises from both endotoxemia and systemic activation of the production of inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, there is a redistribution of blood flow and multiorgan failure develops.
7. What is important to consider when treating focal infections?
Antibiotics do not penetrate well into the closed abscess cavity.
Therefore, in the treatment of foci of infection, drainage and surgical treatment with excision of necrotic tissue play an important role. Antibacterial therapy, based on the results of crops and susceptibility of the pathogen to antibiotics, prevents the development of systemic complications, however, to eliminate the source of infection, drainage is necessary first of all.
8. What causative agents of zoonoses cause the formation of abscesses in dogs and cats? Yersinia pestis (plague pathogen) causes a deadly infectious disease in small animals, especially cats. Although bubonic, pulmonary, and septicemic forms of plague are described, most cats infected with Yersiniapestis have lymphadenopathy of the sublingual, cervical, and swallowed lymph nodes. The onset of the disease is similar to that in abscesses of the neck and head of any other etiology and is represented by the appearance of lethargy, drowsiness, and fever. Enlarged lymph nodes open and drain. If spontaneous dissection of the lymph nodes does not occur, cats can develop pulmonary or septicemicheskoy forms of plague. People become infected by airborne droplets by breathing in droplets of liquid exhaled by animals with pneumonic plague; contact through damaged skin, touching infected tissues or fluids; through infected flea bites. In the aspirate from the foci of inflammation, when coloring by Giemsa, bipolar stained sticks are detected. The diagnosis is confirmed using fluorescent antibodies (in the aspirate from the lymph node or in the contents of the abscess cavity, a specific luminescence of bacteria is observed).
Sporothrix schenckii is a dimorphic fungus that lives in a soil rich in organic matter. Animals become infected when the pathogen enters the body through the skin, people - in close contact with infected cats. Skin and skin-lymphatic forms of sporotrichosis are characterized by the appearance of multiple nodules. Nodules are dense to the touch, may ulcerate or drain. In cats, the distal extremities, the head or the base of the tail are usually affected. The disease is accompanied by lethargy, fever. The foci of infection are very similar to the infected bite wounds received in a fight. The microorganism is found in the discharge from the nodules in biopsy specimens. To identify the pathogen, Schiff's reagent staining (PAS-reaction) or silver gomeri amine is used. In dogs, it is more difficult to isolate the causative agent of the disease than in cats.
9. What pathogens are detected in abscesses? What antibiotics are preferred in the treatment of abscesses?
If an abscess has developed on the site of a cat bite, then Pasteurella spp., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Actinomyces spp. Are more often found in the focus of infection. and Nocardia spp. Anaerobic flora is also often detected, for example, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus and Clostridium spp. Actinomycetes and nocardias often cause abscesses in dogs. More often males of hunting dogs of large breeds are ill. Penicillin-type antibiotics are effective because they act on anaerobic microorganisms, as well as chloramphenicol, which has a broad spectrum of activity and the ability to penetrate into tissues. Most antibiotics do not fall into the center of a closed abscess. Surgical drainage of the abscess cavity with excision of necrotic tissue reduces the severity of the infectious process and contributes to the spread of antibiotics into the surrounding tissues.
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Abscesses and cellulitis
- EPIDURAL ABSCESS
Epidural abscess - an infectious process that develops between the bones of the skull and the outer sheet of the dura mater, may be accompanied by osteomyelitis. Due to the fact that the pathogen easily penetrates through the dura mater along the emissary veins, the epidural abscess is often accompanied by a subdural empyema. The main pathogens most common cause of
Abscess (abscessus), abscess, abscess - a limited cavity filled with pus, formed as a result of focal purulent fusion of tissues. Etiology. The cause of abscesses is the penetration of microorganisms into the tissue when the skin and mucous membrane is damaged and when foreign bodies get into the tissues. They can also be made with therapeutic manipulations (injections, subcutaneous infusions) produced
Physical blockage An abscess is a collection of pus in one place. There are hot and cold abscesses. With a hot abscess (it is much more common), the pus accumulates very quickly and all four signs of inflammation appear: swelling, redness, fever and pain. A cold abscess is characterized by a slow accumulation of fluid in one place without signs of inflammation. Emotional
An abscess is a limited inflammation in the tissues or organs, characterized by the accumulation of pus in the newly formed cavity under the dense membrane. An abscess occurs most often after any mechanical damage to the skin (for example, due to a splinter), through which pyogenic microbes penetrate under the skin (staphylococci, streptococci, blue pus, fungus cryptococci, etc.), causing
- Zagothy abscess
Clinical picture. The pharyngeal abscess is a purulent fusion of the lymph nodes and loose tissue of the swallowed space. Particularly common in debilitated children under the age of 2-3 years, rarely in adults. In childhood, it usually occurs after infectious diseases, acute respiratory viral infections, measles, scarlet fever. In adults, pharyngeal abscesses.
- Laryngeal abscess
Laryngeal abscess may be the final stage of phlegmonous laryngitis, but more often it is caused by trauma to the body (fish bone, etc.). An abscess occurs predominantly on the lingual surface of the epiglottis or in the region of one of the cuspid cartilages, usually developing gradually against the background of the general inflammatory response of the body. Complaints come down to pain when swallowing. 2-3 days after injury
- ABSCESS OF THE BRAIN
Clinic. Brain abscess - a limited abscess in the brain tissue - intracerebral, or epidural, subdural. It is called streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, etc. Pathogenetically, contact (otogenic), metastatic (pneumonia, lung abscess), bronchiectasis abscesses and abscesses that occur during open cranial brain injuries,
- Otogenic intracranial abscesses
Extradural abscess is called the accumulation of pus between the dura mater and bone. It occurs as a result of the spread of the inflammatory process from the mastoid process and the tympanic cavity into the cranial cavity and is localized in the middle or in the posterior cranial fossa. Extradural abscess is usually a complication of chronic suppurative otitis media; often observed in this case
- Paratonsillary abscess (paratonsillitis)
This disease is also called phlegmonous sore throat. Paratonsillar fiber is located between the tonsil capsule and pharyngeal fascia, the distance between which is normally 0.5-1 cm, and parapharyngeal cellulose behind the pharyngeal fascia, lateral. These spaces are made of fiber, the inflammation of which, and in the final stage, and abscess formation determines the clinic.
- Extradural abscess
Extradural abscess usually has a contact mechanism of occurrence. The source of infection in most cases is osteoperiostitis, a carious process located in the wall of the paranasal sinus, which can occur during their chronic inflammation (frontal, ethmoiditis, sphenoiditis). The onset of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a limited focus of inflammation in the region of the solid brain
- Pelvic abscess
Pelvic abscess is a congested accumulation of pus in the vesicular-uterine or rectus-uterine space. Such abscesses can form during inflammatory saccular masses in the appendages, as well as in the postoperative period. At the same time, the resulting adhesions delimit the accumulation of pus from the free sections of the abdominal cavity. Initially formed inflammatory
- LUNG ABSCESS
Lung abscess is a pathological process characterized by the formation of a limited cavity in the lung tissue as a result of its necrosis and purulent fusion. Main pathogens The development of lung abscess is associated primarily with anaerobic flora - Bacteroides spp., F. nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp., P. niger - often in combination with enterobacteria (due to aspiration of the contents
- ABSCESS OF THE BRAIN
Brain abscess - a cluster of brain debris, leukocytes, pus and bacteria, limited by the capsule. The main pathogens Etiological cause of brain abscess can be bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths. Of the bacterial pathogens, the most common are green streptococci (S.anginosus, S.constellatus and S.intermedius), which are found in 70% of cases. AT
- Zakoplotny and paratonzillary abscesses
Zakrutochny abscess develops as a result of purulent lesions of deep pharyngeal lymph nodes and loose tissue located in the pharyngeal space. These lymph nodes are regional for the posterior nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses, the auditory tube, the middle ear, the nasal pharynx, and the tonsils. A zaplottic abscess may be observed in newborns, but
- Paratonsillar abscess
The clinical picture Arises as a further development of paratonzillitis due to the purulent melting of paratonsillar infiltrate. May be complicated by bleeding, the development of mediasthenitis and tonsillogenic sepsis. Sore throat worse when swallowing and opening the mouth. Eating is difficult. Body temperature rises sharply. Maxillary lymph nodes increase, become
- Causes of brain abscess
Brain abscess is a local pus accumulation located in the brain tissue. Typically, brain abscess occurs as a secondary disease, subject to the presence of an infectious focus located outside the central nervous system. The penetration of the infectious agent into the brain is mandatory. At the same time there can be not one, but several abscesses.
- Abscesses of the brain. Surgery
Abscess of the brain - a limited accumulation of pus in the substance of the brain. Most often abscesses are intracerebral, less often - epidural or subdural. Etiology and pathogenesis. The cause of brain abscess is the spread of infection caused by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, meningococci. Often found E. coli, Proteus, mixed flora. Paths