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ACUPUNCTURE - ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF NON-TRADITIONAL THERAPY IN VETERINARY MEDICINE

E.V. Trapezov



Methods of traditional therapy in both humanitarian and veterinary medicine do not always solve the problem of treating certain diseases of animals and humans. Therefore, alternative methods of alternative medicine are used, one of which is acupuncture (acupuncture, acupuncture, zhen-chiu).

Acupuncture, related to alternative medicine, currently has not only new ways (electroacupuncture, bioenergy therapy, etc.), but also takes the first steps towards a truly scientific rationale for this treatment method.

Acupuncture (Latin acus, needle; runctura, injection) is a method of physical influence on a sick organism, which is carried out by using special needles of various sizes (length, diameter). Using acupuncture, enhancing or weakening the biological activity of certain areas (points) located in the tissues of a living organism, the attending physician has a direct or indirect effect on the pathological focus of the disease and, thereby suppressing it, heals the patient.



History of Igloreflex Therapy

The development of this method of treatment originates from the depths of the centuries.

According to reliable sources, acupuncture in China appeared already in the III - II century BC. In the 6th-13th centuries of our era, the chen-tszu method was continuously improved and increasingly used in medical practice. During this period, numerous guidelines on the use of acupuncture in gynecology, surgery, pediatrics and therapy were published. In 1026, the book “Tu Zheng Xue Zhenju” (“Atlas of Bronze Man’s Points”) was written, in which the methods of finding the points of influence on the body are described in detail. An eminent scientist of the time, Wang Wei-i, plotted 600 points on a bronze model of a man's figure. He described these points in detail and noted the effect of acupuncture on each of them. The points were separated in 12 lines (meridians) connecting the periphery of the body with internal organs. The progress of chen-jiu therapy lasted several centuries. The efforts of scientists of several generations created figures and maps with signs already 14 lines and 695 points (most of the experts currently use this topography of points).



ACUPUNCTURE THEORY

The emergence and development of theories in the field of Chinese medicine corresponds to the rule of the Gan dynasty (Han) (approximately II century BC and II century AD). During this period, a functional (anatomical and physiological) model was developed, consistent with the concept of philosophy and religion of Taoism, built on analogies.

According to Eastern theory, the organism is fully comparable with the Universe and is in close relationship with it. The method of analogues allows you to develop a complex and highly developed system based on the principle of dualism and the theory of five elements. From a dualistic point of view, the world bears all its manifestations in two aspects - Yin and Yang, which have duality, continuity, antagonism (day and night, heat and cold, man and woman), alternation (for example, seasons) and additions . In humans and animals, we find Yin - Yang, both in regions of the body, internal organs and tissues, and elements circulating in the body (energy and blood). Based on simple observations in nature (the tree burns, the air rises, the earth remains stationary, the metal cuts, water flows down), the Chinese have identified five categories related to one element as real-life concepts (color, smell, internal organs, mouths, tissues and etc.).

The main functions of the body are the result of the activity of the twelve internal organs (which are called the mouth). The six “full” mouths are called Yin-related organs. They are responsible for the accumulation of "energy" and are in direct relationship with the five elements. Six “hollow” estuaries - Yang - perform the function of passage in the body, and interact with Yin organs according to the principle of subordination.

From the point of view of physiology, the function of the twelve organs is comparable to the hierarchy of ancient society in China: the heart is the emperor, the lung is the prime minister (regulation and appointment), the liver is the main general (development of plans); gall bladder - arbitrator (makes decisions); spleen - organizer (ceremonies and holidays); the stomach - the distributor of public food supplies; kidney - a talented official responsible for the function of creation; the bladder is by the local magistrate (attracts fluids, excess, etc.).

This is an ideal model, she knew no exceptions: the Chinese talked about the gallbladder in the horse (in fact, the horse does not have a gallbladder).

The Chinese have also developed a "dynamic model" of the body, in which energy and blood circulate. The complete circulation of these two systems affects all regions of the body in 24 hours along 12 meridians, which are controlled by each of the above organs.

Under the meridians imply the energetic manifestation of the functional activity of the organs. According to the theory, these meridians are represented as directional lines of force passing through the body along the main energy cycle in space and time, built on the interposition of each meridian in relation to the two others. Each of the twelve meridians has the name of an organ and represents its function in the regions of the body through which it passes.

There is no doubt that the theory of meridians a priori stems from analogies: microsomes are part of the human macrosome, are represented by 360 points (according to the Chinese calendar), and are distributed along the entire length of 12 meridians (half the moon cycle).

Veterinarians in China formally apply this model. They never described these twelve meridians in animals (perhaps this is due to anatomical difficulties). They use fewer points (in the form of "recipes", according to the disease).

In addition to these “main” meridians, in order to supplement the energy scheme of the body in humanitarian medicine, other formations are described (longitudinal and transverse vessels “Lo”, tendon-muscular and clear meridians, as well as wonderful vessels — meridians that are also called magnificent vessels). Probably, these formations were described to optimize the data on the clinical status of the organism, which are not included in the theory of the main twelve meridians.

The acupuncture point (in the literal sense) is a "well", that is, a privileged place on the skin that allows you to have an effect on local structures, as well as on the path and function of the meridian on which they are located.

In accordance with this, the disease is considered as local or generalized disorders of the harmonious circulation of blood and energy, along the entire length of the meridians.



PENETRATION OF ACUPUNCTURE IN EUROPE

The first information about acupuncture in Europe appeared in the XIII century. Portuguese Fernand Mendez Pinto (1618), who visited Japan, was the first to master acupuncture. In 1671 in Grenoble the missionary (Jesuit) Garvien published the book "The Secrets of Chinese Medicine." After several unsuccessful attempts (XVIII - XIX century), this method of treatment, particularly in France, was recognized only in the XX century (initiated by Georges Soulier de Mora in 1934). In Russia, acupuncture was first used by Professor of the Medical-Surgical Academy P. Charukovsky (1828), who noted a positive therapeutic effect in rheumatism and lumboischialgia. Then the works of A.Ya. Violina and V.V. Korsakov (1901-903). The growing interest in acupuncture in Russia should be attributed to 1959.



OPENING OF ACUPUNCTURE POINTS BY EUROPEANS

Independently without contact with the East, some European clinicians, such as Valeks (XIX century), as well as researchers, studying the issue of high sensitivity in diseases, described points with therapeutic effects (previously known acupuncture points). At one time, the military veterinary doctor Roger used the acupuncture method to detect colic in a horse (we associate this with the phenomenon of a sensitivity disorder on the surface of the body of an animal when a segment of the digestive tract is ill). This area on the surface of the body he called the "key of the horse." In parallel with him, Head, studying manifesting diseases of internal organs, discovered (the end of the XIX century) on the surface of the skin of the point, which are named after him. Hackett and Travell, studying the pain reaction of somatic origin, describe some muscle points ("trigger points"). With a strong pressure or the introduction of saline in these points, an unpleasant sensation is noted in the “sensitive zone” located at a distance from them. Many kinesitherapists (early twentieth century) are known for their developed massage techniques (Cornelius nerve points, Wetterwald's neuralgia, Volger's periosteum, Kolroch musculature, etc.).
In addition, many authors have described a similar phenomenon of hypersensitivity, accompanied by a reaction in the form of nodular conjunctivitis, which is called the "acupuncture point reaction".



ACHEADING ACTION MECHANISM

To answer this question it is necessary to turn to the clinic of the disease and to what we know about the effects of acupuncture.

Clinically, we clearly evaluate the effect of this method on the effect of analgesia. Acupuncture relieves pain with the disappearance of the accompanying phenomena (striated contracture and spasms of smooth muscle tissue) of a reflex nature.

This kind of action, as it is said about analgesics in pharmacopoeial reference books, is not included in the list "B".

In addition, other phenomena are present in the acupuncture effect. All of them are dependent (more or less direct) on the nervous system.

Local blockade, which causes analgesia of a nerve under the control of an inactive point, stimulates the latter. The introduction of substances that tone up local points (close to the location of the pain reaction) and those located distally, indicates different ways of innervation.

The activity of local points in acupuncture is well explained by the theory of "the door controlling pain". The thinner fibers of the central nervous system (fibers A, gamma, and C) conduct impulses that, after receiving an additional charge from the brain itself, reach it. In turn, the brain integrates these impulses in the form of pain. Stimulation of thicker nerve fibers located in the same place in the brain causes the formation of impulses that quickly suppress this information (before the appearance of an "additional charge" from the brain), which indicates a "presynaptic suppression". Suppression (suppression) of pain occurs due to the "closing of the door", through which the pain impulse usually passes. The location of the "door" at the beginning was established by Melzack and Vall at the level of Roland's gelatin-like substance. It is now believed that neurons converge the fourth layer of the spinal cord and are included in the function of "segmental pain control" at the level of the brain. The method of eliminating such pain was carried out on a person. It is based on the implantation (implantation) of electrodes associated with an electrical stimulator (the patient himself manipulates this device, eliminating the specific pain in the relevant area). Implantation was carried out both on the large trunk of the peripheral nerve and at the level of the brain.

The effect of points at a distance when conducting acupuncture sessions is explained by the release of endorphins or enkephalins, produced at the thalamus level. The verification of this effect was performed by Pomerans. After carrying out a correlation of potential changes at the level of the thalamus, when puncturing the point "Three li" (Zu San li) on the hind limb of the animal, the author injected naloxane (a morphine inhibitor), after which the altered potential disappeared. Consequently, the conducted acupuncture session had a "morphine-like" effect in the highest part of the central nervous system, which was accompanied by a pronounced change in the threshold of pain sensitivity. Such suppression of pain through the thalamus (possibly at the level of raphe magnus) can be translated into convergent neurons of the brain via descending serotonergic pathways.

In contrast to the drugs included in the list of B (analgesics, addictive to them in patients as they are used) "morphine-like" effect of acupuncture does not cause complications.

This general idea (about analgesia) only partially allows to explain the effect of this method.

As for paralysis of central or peripheral origin, acupuncture accelerates the recovery process (has an effect on the remaining active nerve cells).

The effect of acupuncture, leading to not yet deciphered phenomena (motility of the digestive tract, cervical tone and bronchial wall, vasodilation phenomena), depending on the autonomic nervous system, can reproduce the effect of drugs (mimetic or lytic effect on the ortho- and parasympathetic system) . As for the latter, we cannot ignore their secondary action, which is mainly generalized. It is believed that acupuncture can change the secretory function of the endocrine system through monitoring the central nervous system.

Other therapeutic properties of acupuncture are based on a different effect on the nervous system, which leads to local phenomena (visual impairment, stomatitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis), as well as on the start of the sexual cycle and pregnancy in females.

The effects of acupuncture on phenomena controlled by the central nervous system (sleep, general condition, etc.) can be replaced by drugs, but from the point of view of their secondary action, this method has an advantage.

At present, our knowledge and experimental studies, for the time being, hardly explain and reproduce the phenomena that increase the body’s resistance to certain types of aggressive agents.

At the end of this section, it must be said that one should not neglect such importance of acupuncture as the absence of secondary effects on the body and the very rapid effect of analgesia, accompanied by a wonderful sensation.



SEARCH POINTS

Practicing veterinarians who wish to "rush" into this area, it should be noted that the main problem of this issue is to "catch" the desired point. In humanitarian medicine, a doctor engaged in acupuncture usually pays little attention to the detailed examination of his patient. He introduces the needles to the patient in accordance with the scheme. In addition, the points that have been applied to the atlas are thousands of years old, and their detection does not cause much difficulty (in traditional acupuncture, which is studied in humanitarian medicine, before it is used, a long period of time is necessary, which is essential). Veterinarians who refer to the literature and atlases in the search for these points show a complete inconsistency. Moreover, the proposed information does not answer the question:

which point (s) need to be pricked?

Why this one and not the other?

In this case, the answer is simple: you must first be a research clinician. It means to master the methods of examination (in particular, palpation), to see the area of ​​the disease (or to see the neighboring region, if we are talking about internal disease), to notice minor violations in the epidermis and to catch a local temperature change. All these difficulties arise at the first stage. The "royal eye" for the beginner is the palpator method of research. This method of examining a patient allows the doctor to detect most of the points he is looking for.

Thanks to palpation, we can assess the degree of sensitivity (with strong pressure) and reveal the presence of "nodes" under the skin.



APPLICATION OF ACUPUNCTURE

Acupuncture should be prescribed correctly, knowing that acupuncture used in practice, like all other methods of treatment, has not only indications, but also limitations and contraindications.

Pain and its consequences (lameness of neurological nature, spasms), manifested in violation of the function of the musculoskeletal system (dislocations, stretching of tendons and muscles, myositis, tendonitis, arthrosis), are successfully eliminated during acupuncture sessions. Indications in the treatment of neurogenic nature in rheumatology occupy the first place in humans (about one third of cases). We are also well aware of the limitations on the use of analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids.

The main symptoms of a violation of the digestive tract (vomiting, diarrhea, constipation) respond well to acupuncture.

The pain response to the appearance of colic is very well controlled by this method.

Treatment of many disorders of the urogenital system also have positive results in acupuncture: irregularity of cycles, pustules, delayed or delayed delivery, alopecia of a hormonal nature, spasms of the bladder, false pregnancy, etc. По мнению А. Демонтуа и Риокура, существует три основных области применения акупунктуры, в которых аллопатические средства не всегда могут конкурировать с методом иглорефлексотерапии: анальгезия, противорвотное и спазмолитическое действия.

Кроме того, акупунктура имеет другие области применения: офтальмология (конъюнктивиты), отоларингология (лечение локальных симптомов при коризе у кошек), и так далее. В заключение следует сказать, что такой метод, как акупунктура, относящийся к области нетрадиционной терапии, вполне заслуживает внимания при его применении в ветеринарной медицине.
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