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Anaerobic enterotoxemia of animals

Anaerobic enterotoxemia of animals (enterotoxaemia infectiosa anaerobica) is an acute disease of calves, piglets, lambs, and fur animals of the first days of life, characterized by hemorrhagic enteritis, nervous phenomena and general intoxication of the organism caused by toxins Cl.perfringens.

Etiology. The causative agent is anaerobic microorganism Cl.perfringens type A, B, C, D. This is a large (4-8 x 1-1.6 microns) and a fixed gram-positive bacillus. The pathogen forms spores and a capsule. It grows well on the environment of Kitt-Tarozzi and Zeissler glucose-blood agar. The pathogen in spore form is stored for a long time in the environment. Clostridiums have a destructive effect: chlorine-containing drugs, 10% hot sodium hydroxide solution, etc.

Epizootological data. Young farm animals are sick from the first days of life to 1.5-2 months of age. The source of the causative agent of infection are animals - clostridial carriers that secrete the pathogen with feces. Infection occurs by alimentary. The emergence of the disease contribute to insufficient feeding of pregnant animals, lack of exercise, hypothermia or overheating of newborns, unsanitary conditions of detention. Mortality from 50 to 100%.

The course and symptoms. The incubation period lasts from several hours to 2-3 days. The disease is acute and sometimes animals die before the first clinical signs appear. In animals, oppression, weakness, colic, and seizures with a head tilted back are observed.
With the defeat of calves with Clostridia type A, there is a strong bleeding from the nasal openings, oral cavity and rectum. The blood does not clot.

Diagnosis based on epizootological data, clinical signs and pathological changes is quite difficult. Therefore, the results of bacteriological and toxicological studies are crucial. The diagnosis is considered established when detecting a toxin and determining its type, or isolating a culture of the pathogen that produces the toxin and its typification.

Differential diagnosis. Exclude salmonellosis, dyspepsia and colibacteriosis.

Treatment is effective only at the beginning of the development of the disease. Anti-toxic hyperimmune serum and antibiotics (biomitsin, syntomycin, enroxil, kanamycin, cobactan, etc.), sulfa drugs (norsulfazol with food 2-3 times a day at a dose of 0.04-0.06 g / kg of animal weight) are used.

Prevention and control measures. Prevention is based on observance of veterinary-sanitary and zoohygienic rules for keeping and feeding animals. It is necessary to have a delivery room for cows and a dispensary for newborns. When a disease appears, sick animals are isolated and treated, they thoroughly clean and disinfect the premises. In disadvantaged farms, it is necessary to vaccinate pregnant animals.
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Anaerobic enterotoxemia of animals

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