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Aseptic joint inflammation
By the nature of the exudate can be serous, serous-fibrinous, fibrinous, according to the clinical course - acute and chronic.
Etiology. Bruises, sprains, sprains and other mechanical damages determine the subsequent development of aseptic arthritis.
In light injuries, serous arthritis is more common. More severe damage to the joints leads to the development of serofibrinous and fibrinous arthritis. Chronic serous arthritis (hydroarthrosis, joint edema, filling) usually develops from acute serous arthritis after bruises, sprains of the joints, and also as a result of over-exploitation of the animal, with abnormal limb setting, clearing and forging of the hoofs. This disease is more commonly recorded in horses and sires.
Arthritis can occur with toxic-allergic conditions and infections. In cows, they are observed in postpartum infections and mastitis; in horses with infectious anemia, brucellosis; in pigs, in the face.
Aseptic arthritis in animals often occur with rheumatism, rickets.
In the etiology and pathogenesis of aseptic and purulent arthritis, body sensitization, which can occur in cattle and other animals under the influence of various allergens (blood, serum, vaccines, drugs, antibiotics, plant pollen, etc.), is essential. As a result, the animal's body becomes more vulnerable to one or another damaging effects.
Clinical signs. Aseptic arthritis can develop in any joint, but gangling, obscene, and knee are more often affected. In the acute period of the disease, when moving the animal, lameness of mixed type is noticeable. It is most clearly manifested in serous-fibrinous and fibrinous arthritis. In the latter, a brief increase in body temperature of 0.5 ° C is possible. The general condition of patients is satisfactory. The animal holds the limb half bent, touching the floor with the hooked part of the hoof, and releases the affected limb from the load.
In the area of the affected joint, a distinct swelling is determined, the volume of the joint is increased, the contours are smoothed. Palpation noted local temperature increase, severe pain. Passive movements of the joint are also painful. In diverticula feel fluctuation.
With arthritis of an infectious, toxic-allergic nature, as a rule, several joints are affected.
In chronic serous arthritis, when a small amount of exudate accumulates in the joint cavity (20-50 ml), the claudication of the animal is not noticeable during movement.
A significant accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity (up to 150–400 ml or more) causes fatigue of the animal and minor claudication.
Chronic serous arthritis is not accompanied by noticeable disturbances in the general condition of the animal. On examination, the smoothness of the contours of the joint is noted; well visible bulging of diverticula. On palpation of the joint there is a transfusion of fluid from one diverticulum to another. Passive movements in the joint are accompanied by an increase in tension in some diverticula and weakening in others.
X-ray examination of the affected joint shows the absence of articular bone changes.
The prognosis in the acute course of the disease is usually favorable, in chronic it is cautious, since it is difficult to fully restore the function of the limb.
Treatment. For mechanical damage on the first day cold is used in combination with a pressure bandage. With arthritis of unexplained etiology, cold is not used. In the following days, warming compresses, warm-moisture wraps, Solux lamps, paraffin therapy, massage, dosed movements, rubbing of ointments (5% ichthyol or camphor) are shown.
Apply circular procaine blockade. The use of hydrocortisone is noteworthy. A large animal is injected into the articular cavity at a dose of 125 mg with 1 ml of a 0.5% novocaine solution with the addition of 500 thousand units of benzylpenicillin or streptomycin sulfate. In the case of a subacute course, administration is repeated after 5–6 days.
A good result in the treatment of serous-fibrinous and fibrinous arthritis in cattle is provided by proteolytic enzymes and antihistamines. Sick animals (fixed in the standing position) intramuscularly injected 5-10 ml of a 2.5% aqueous solution of pipolfen. From the side of the most prominent diverticulum of the joint, a puncture is made and, if possible, aspirated exudate. In case of anxiety, the animal raises the diseased limb or the opposite healthy one. Then, a joint puncture is made from the opposite diverticulum and the cavity is washed with a 0.5% solution of novocaine with antibiotics (500 thousand U of streptomycin sulfate and benzylpenicillin are added to 100 ml of novocaine solution).
After washing and extracting fluid, an enzyme solution with an antibiotic is administered through one of the needles: chymotrypsin - 20 mg or himopsin - 50 mg, neomycin sulfate - 1 g or streptomycin sulfate - 1 g, 0.5% novocaine solution - 3 - 5 ml. The next day, these treatments are repeated. In the subsequent, the enzyme solution with the preliminary introduction of pipolphene is injected after 3 to 4 days. The course of treatment requires 3-4 injections.
Prevention is to prevent injury and to follow the measures recommended for the prevention of surgical diseases.
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Aseptic joint inflammation
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