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Diseases of the urinary system

Nephritis (nephritis) - a disease characterized by inflammation of the kidneys (often on an immune basis), followed by a violation of their function. All parts of the nephron, interstitial kidney tissue, blood vessels and nerve endings can be involved in the inflammatory process. Depending on the degree of damage to the main structures of the kidneys, glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis are isolated. The magnitude of the lesion jade is focal and diffuse, with the flow - acute and chronic.

Etiology. The main cause of nephritis are various infections, allergenic factors, penetrating radiation or radioactive substances entering the body. Of all the parenchymal organs of the kidney, the most sensitive to radiation, especially in young. Jade can develop when feeding spoiled hay, coniferous branches, young leaves of birch, alder, as a result of improper use of certain drugs (turpentine, tar, phosphorus, arsenic, antibiotics, etc.), as well as a complication of various gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases .

Symptoms In acute nephritis, general depression, loss of appetite, increased body temperature, pain in the kidney area, frequent urination in small portions are noted. In severe cases, there is swelling of the subcutaneous tissue in the area of ​​the eyelids, decompression, abdomen, extremities, blood pressure rises with increased second tone on the aorta. With the development of uremia, thirst, dry mouth, vomiting appears. In chronic course, rapid fatigue is observed, fatness decreases, signs of heart failure, uremia increase, edema progresses, and anemia develops.

Urine high density, turbid, and often with flakes. It reveals blood cells, cylinders, descending epithelium, protein, sugar, and often microorganisms. In the blood - leukocytosis.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Characteristic features are an increase in body temperature, pain during urination and palpation in the kidney area, a sharp decrease in urine output. Laboratory urinalysis is crucial. Nephritis must be differentiated from pyelonephritis and nephrosis. With pyelonephritis, persistent fever, frequent urination, and excessive soreness are characteristic. In the urine, along with blood cells, a large number of cells of the renal pelvis and microbes. With nephrosis there is no pain, the temperature is not elevated, there is increased urination, the urine has a high content of protein and flattened epithelium of convoluted tubules.

Treatment. Improve the maintenance and feeding of sick animals. Assign foods rich in vitamins. Limit the giving of proteins and salt. To improve diuresis and metabolic processes, 40% glucose solution, hemodez, and polyglucin are administered intravenously at a dose of 0.5-1.0 ml / kg of animal weight. Diuretics and disinfectants are also prescribed: potassium acetate inside, 0.04-0.1 g / kg, temisal, respectively, 0.01-0.02 g / kg, intravenously 20-25% magnesium sulfate solution in a dose of 0 , 2-0.4 ml / kg, hexamethylenetetramine - inside and intravenously at 0.01-0.04 g / kg.

Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drugs are required: novocaine in the form of perirenal blockade and intravenous calcium chloride or gluconate, as well as hormonal preparations (ACTH and corticotropin intramuscularly to large animals 3-10 IU / kg, cortisone orally 0.002- 0.003 g / kg, prednisone orally 1) mg / kg).

Sulfonamides (urosulfan, etazol), penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol antibiotics, and nitrofuran preparations are used to suppress microflora.

Prevention is to prevent the complications of infectious and other diseases, the rational use of substances that have an irritating effect. It is also necessary to protect animals from overcooling, to increase their natural resistance.

Nephrosis (nephrosis) is a kidney disease characterized by dystrophic changes in the parenchyma with a primary lesion of the tubules. It can be acute and chronic along the course, focal and diffuse in magnitude of lesions, primary and secondary in origin. Animals of all kinds are sick, but often young animals, especially piglets and calves.

Etiology. The cause of the disease can be feed intoxication, mineral and organic poisoning, metabolic disorders, circulatory disorders, infectious and invasive diseases. Predisposing factor is the lack of vitamins A, D, E and group B.

Symptoms There is depression, loss of appetite, at the onset of the disease polyuria takes place, which is later replaced by oliguria. Extensive edema appears in the area of ​​eyelids, decompression and extremities. With prolonged course and progressive uraemia, gastroenteritis, toxic hepatitis, pancreatosis, myocardosis and anemia occur. Patients' skin becomes dry, hair is brittle.

The urine contains a large amount of protein (3-5%), predominantly albumin, less co-molecular proteins, descending epithelium of the renal tubules, hyaline and granular cylinders.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is made taking into account the history, clinical symptoms and laboratory tests of urine and blood. In the differential diagnosis exclude nephritis and pyelonephritis.

Treatment. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the etiological factors that caused the disease, and to organize a full-fledged feeding with sufficient protein, carbohydrates, calcium and vitamins. Sick animals increase the dose of milk, skim milk, appoint clover and alfalfa hay, legume-cereal mixtures, limit the giving of table salt and water. In order to enhance the regeneration of the renal epithelium, vitamin A and E are used.

To compensate for the large loss of protein and remove intoxication, fresh citrate plasma, hydrolysin, polyglucin, hemodez, 40% glucose solution is calculated at the rate of 0.5-1 ml / kg of animal weight, intravenously. Calcium and potassium preparations are also prescribed: calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, potassium chloride, and potassium orotate. With strong edema, diuretic drugs are used.

Nephrosis prophylaxis is based on full feeding, taking into account age and specific features, protection of animals from poisoning with spoiled food, toxic chemicals. The importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment of non-communicable, infectious and invasive diseases.

Nephrosclerosis (nephrosclerosis) is a kidney disease characterized by proliferation of fibrous connective tissue, atrophy of the parenchyma, in violation of its basic functions. Nephrosclerosis occurs in animals of all species and ages. Nephrosclerosis is most often the outcome of chronic interstitial nephritis and nephrosis.

Etiology. The cause of the disease is chronic nephritis and nephrosis of non-contagious and infectious origin. It often occurs as a complication of infectious diseases. Therefore, it is more common in animals that have had brucellosis, leptospirosis, swine erysipelas, swine fever and dogs and others.

Symptoms Chronic. There is depression, loss of appetite, productivity and efficiency, as well as signs of general anemia. Body temperature remains within the physiological norm.

Characteristic signs are thirst and pronounced polyuria with low urine density - 1.001-1.010 and arterial hypertension. Rectal examination reveals atrophy, induration and tuberosity of the kidneys. With the development of uremia, especially in carnivores and omnivores, there may be vomiting, pruritus, eczema. When polyuria changes, oligouria often leads to uremic coma and death of the animal.

In laboratory studies of urine, along with a decrease in its density, there is a scanty sediment consisting of single cells of the renal epithelium and leukocytes, sometimes geoline and granular cylinders and extremely little protein.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is made taking into account the anamnesis, nephritis and nephrosis relapse, characteristic symptoms: polyuria with low urine density and arterial, as well as the results of rectal kidney examination (reduced in volume, compacted, hilly). Differentiate the need for diabetes and diabetes insipidus. In diabetes mellitus, polyuria is noted with the release of high-density urine containing a large amount of sugar. With diabetes insipidus polyuria with low urine density, but with it there is no proteinuria, uremia, hypertension, and renal edema.

Treatment is not economically feasible.
Sick animals are subject to culling. Medical aid only to highly valuable breeding and decorative animals. The treatment is aimed at maintaining kidney function, eliminating uremia, acidosis, improving the cardiovascular system. Sick animals are limited to watering, provide dietary foods containing large amounts of carbohydrates, low - proteins and chlorides.

Prevention is aimed at the early diagnosis and timely treatment of sick animals with nephritis and nephrosis, prevention of metabolic disorders, feed and other intoxications.

Pyelitis (pyelitis) - a disease characterized by inflammation of the renal pelvis, followed by inflammation of the kidneys and the underlying urinary tract. All kinds of animals are ill, but most often cattle and dogs, especially females. By origin, it is primary and secondary, by the nature of inflammation most often catarrhal-purulent, acute and chronic along the course.

Etiology. The most common cause of the disease is the penetration of microorganisms into the renal pelvis during postpartum complications: vaginitis, endometritis, retention of the afterbirth, abnormal delivery. It also arises in violation of the sanitary rules of artificial insemination of animals, as well as on the continuation of nephritis and urocystitis. Hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways of microflora penetration into the renal pelvis are also possible.

Symptoms In the acute course there is a strong depression, lack of appetite, fever, in carnivores and omnivores - vomiting. The characteristic signs are painfulness on palpation in the lumbar region and rectal examination of the kidneys. Rectal examination can detect the expansion and fluctuation in the area of ​​the pelvis and the thickening of the ureters. Urination frequent, painful, insignificant. Urine turbid, sometimes with flakes of fibrin and bloody hue.

In laboratory studies of urine, leukocytes, sometimes erythrocytes, mucus and fibrin, as well as squamous epithelium of the renal pelvis, protein and less often sugar, are constantly detected.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnesis, characteristic clinical symptoms: frequent painful urination, pain during external and internal (rectal) palpation, changes in the quality of urine with the presence of blood corpuscles and desquamated epithelium of the pelvis. It is necessary to differentiate from nephritis, urocystitis and urolithiasis.

Treatment. Eliminate the etiological factors of the disease, prescribe a sparing diet of easily digestible food, provide plenty of drinking water. To suppress pathogenic microflora, a course of treatment with antibiotics, sulfonamides, nitrofurans and other drugs is carried out, taking into account the sensitivity to them of microorganisms isolated from urine sediment.

In the complex therapy, diuretics, disinfectants, painkillers and antispasmodics (antispastic) are also prescribed.

Prevention of pyelitis in animals is aimed at the timely detection and treatment of patients with nephritis, urocystitis and postpartum complications, as well as observance of the rules of asepsis and antiseptics during bladder catheterization, artificial insemination, study of the genital organs and delivery of obstetrics.

Urocystitis (urocystitis) - inflammation of the bladder. Most often it is exudative (catarrhal, purulent, fibrinous and hemorrhagic), less often - ulcerative and polypous, primary and secondary in origin, acute and chronic in its course.

The disease is recorded in animals of all kinds.

Etiology. Urocystitis develops when the bladder enters the hematogenous, lymphogenous and urogenic pathogenic microflora, most often E. coli, staphylococci, streptococci and Proteus. It can also be caused by potent substances used for treatment and released through the urinary tract, as well as increased radioactivity of the terrain.

Symptoms In acute urocystitis, depression, appetite loss, and sometimes increased body temperature are observed. The most important clinical sign of inflammation of the bladder is frequent and painful urination. Urine is excreted in small portions, turbid. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, cells of the desquamated epithelium of the mucous membrane, protein, mucus, salt crystals are found in it (especially in the last portions). In chronic urocystitis, the same symptoms are observed, but they are less pronounced. There are periods of attenuation and exacerbation of the disease.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of analysis of anamnestic data, characteristic clinical symptoms and results of urine tests. Where necessary, conduct cystoscopy and rectal examination. In the differential diagnosis exclude pyelonephritis and urolithiasis.

Treatment. Give easily digestible food, water is not limited. When acidic urine inside or intravenously prescribed sodium bicarbonate, hexamethylenediamine in doses of 0.02-0.04 g / kg large and 2.0-5.0 g per head of small animals; with alkaline urine - inside phenyl salicylate (salol) in doses of 0.03-0.05 g / kg of animal weight. The main importance in the treatment are drugs of the nitrofuran series (furazolidone, furadonin, furagin) orally at doses of 0.001-0.003 g / kg, sulfonamides (urosulfan) at a dose of 0.02-0.06 g / kg, as well as antibiotics that are excreted through the urinary of the way. In severe cases, the bladder is washed with solutions of antibiotics, nitrofurans, boric acid, potassium permanganate, ethacridine lactate.

Prevention is based on the observance of asepsis in the study of the vagina, urethra, bladder, timely treatment of primary diseases of inflammatory nature (umbilical cord, intestines, respiratory organs and joints).

Urolithiasis (urolithiasis) is a disease characterized by the formation of urinary stones and sand in the kidneys and urinary tract. Animals of all kinds are ill, but most often young sheep, cattle and minks.

Mass distribution of the disease often takes among the bulls in specialized complexes for fattening cattle. Sick animals are difficult to treat and should be rejected.

Etiology. The main cause of urolithiasis is a violation of the vitamin-mineral metabolism in the body, especially a lack of retinol and a violation of the watering regime. Desquamated epithelium in hypo-and avitaminosis A is the basis for the crystallization of salts in it and the formation of stones. These violations are usually noted with a concentrated type of feeding with the inclusion in the diet of a large amount of meat and bone meal or fish meal and various mineral premixes.

Symptoms Clinical signs depend on the location of stones and their sizes. In the formation of small stones and sand, painlessly coming out of the urethra, symptoms are not marked. Bright clinical signs of the disease appear when the stones cover the urinary tract. With partial blockage, there is periodic pain when urinating, urine is released intermittently, with a thin stream or drops. With complete blockage, severe colic is noted, animals moan, gnash their teeth.

In urine with urolithiasis, leukocytes, red blood cells, flattened epithelium, small stones, and urinary sand are found.

With the development of inflammation, symptoms of pyelitis, urocystitis, urethritis occur, the number of leukocytes increases in the urine.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical symptoms and laboratory tests of urine, in necessary cases, fluoroscopy and rectal examination are performed.

Urolithiasis must be differentiated from nephritis, pyelitis and urocystitis.

Treatment. Small stones and sand can be removed with various diuretics and antispasmodics. In some cases, catheterization and lavage of the bladder and urethra contribute to the removal of stones. Large stones are removed surgically. In case of complications of urolithiasis inflammatory process treatment is prescribed, as in pyelitis and urocystitis. In all cases, to prevent the re-formation of stones, it is necessary to organize full feeding and provide plenty of water.

Prevention is based on compliance with the technology of feeding, watering and keeping animals, providing them with active exercise. In addition, inflammatory diseases of the bladder and urinary tract should be treated promptly.
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Diseases of the urinary system

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