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Escherichiosis (echerichiosis) is an infectious disease accompanied by profuse diarrhea, signs of severe intoxication and dehydration.
Etiology. The causative agent of the disease are enteropathogenic strains (E. coli) of E. coli, which are characterized by high virulence and the presence of hemolytic properties. The causative agent of the disease is an optional anaerobic and is a short, thick (0.2-0.7 x 2-4 microns), gram-negative bacillus with rounded ends, not forming a spore.
The causative agent in feces retains its biological activity for up to 30 days, in soil, water - up to several months.
Epizootology. The disease is susceptible to newborn youngsters aged 1-4 days, somewhat less often - at 5-10 days of age.
The source of the causative agent of the infection is sick and ill animals, as well as adult bacterial carriers that intensively excrete the pathogen with feces and sometimes with urine. The transmission factors for Escherichia are contaminated feed, water, inventory, litter, clothing, etc. The carriers of the pathogen are wild rodents and birds. Infection occurs both during childbirth, in particular when hygiene rules are not followed, and when the feeding and keeping conditions of animals are violated. The causative agent enters the body with food, water, less often by an aerogenous route.
The disease proceeds in the form of enzootia, with the coverage of a significant population, without strictly expressed seasonality. In stationary dysfunctional farms, the mortality of puppies can reach 15-25%.
Pathogenesis. Enteropathogenic pathogen strains, once in the gastrointestinal tract, cause the development of dysbiosis and intoxication phenomena. Subsequently, having penetrated the bloodstream, determine the state of septicemia.
Symptoms and course. The incubation period lasts 1-5 days and is characterized by an acute and subacute course. In puppies, the disease manifests itself in enteric and septic forms.
With an enteric form, a decrease in appetite is noted, puppies become inactive, restless, squeak. Signs of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract develop - feces become liquid, gruel, yellow. In the future, diarrhea intensifies, the color of excrement becomes gray-white or dark gray with an admixture of mucus, fetid odor, sometimes the feces foam. In suckling puppies, excrement contains clots of curdled milk, sometimes mixed with blood. In severe cases, the bowel movement becomes more frequent and becomes involuntary. The coat near the anus, on the tail, hind limbs is moist, contaminated with dried, glued stools. The body temperature at the onset of the disease reaches 40-41 5 ° C, then in the agonal period decreases to normal and even lower. Puppies intensively lose weight, the fur loses its luster, becomes tousled, coordination of movement is disturbed due to the weakness of the hind limbs. In the acute course, the disease ends in death on the 3rd-6th day. With subacute - on the 10-16th day.
The septic form is accompanied by symptoms of meningoencephalitis, with impaired coordination of movement, the development of paresis and paralysis of the limbs and seizures.
In infected pregnant females, abortions or the birth of dead puppies, loss of appetite and depression are recorded.
In nutria puppies, the earliest sign of illness is anxiety, expressed in continuous squeak.
The hair and skin near the anus are contaminated with feces. With a light massage of the abdomen, liquid feces of a heterogeneous consistency are released from the anus. Its color is yellow-green or white-yellow with bubbles of gas and mucus.
Pathological changes. At autopsy of animals that died during Escherichiosis, an enlarged spleen, catarrhal-hemorrhagic enteritis, in some cases with hemorrhages on the mucous membrane, serous lymphadenitis of the mesenteric nodes, catarrhal bronchopneumonia and exicosis are revealed.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis of escherichiosis is established on the basis of clinical and epizootological data, the results of pathological changes with the mandatory conduct of microbiological studies.
The diagnosis is considered established when isolating Escherichia cultures from the following two organs: spleen and bone marrow or spleen and brain without determining pathogenicity and serological affiliation. In addition, the diagnosis will be recognized as established by isolating from at least two Escherichia organs pathogenic for white mice.
Escherichiosis should be differentiated from viral gastroenteritis, salmonellosis, eimeriosis, gastroenteritis of non-infectious etiology and streptococcosis.
Treatment. As a specific treatment, polyvalent antitoxic serum against salmonellosis and colibacteriosis of farm animals and birds is used. In addition, agents of pathogenetic, symptomatic and rehydration therapy are used. Antibacterial drugs are used only after determining their sensitivity to isolated cultures of Escherichia.
Prevention and control measures. When a diagnosis is established, restrictions are introduced, according to which a thorough clinical study and thermometry are carried out, followed by isolation and treatment of sick animals. Disinfect aviaries, sheds, houses, equipment using a 3% hot solution of sodium hydroxide or 2% formaldehyde; 3% solution of chloramine or 2% solution of hypochlor; 1% solutions of vircon C, polysept, metacid, fogucid.
Females are immunized to create passive immunity in puppies using a multivalent vaccine against salmonellosis and colibacteriosis of fur animals. Create the optimal technological regime for keeping animals. Conduct deratization. The corpses of dead animals are destroyed. Manure is disinfected biothermally. Restrictions are removed in the absence of sick animals, obtaining a healthy offspring and the implementation of veterinary-sanitary and special measures in full.
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