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Escherichiosis (lat., English. - Escherichiosis; Escherichiosis) - a disease of adult bees, characterized by diarrhea and death as a result of sepsis.
The causative agent of the disease. The causative agent of escherichiosis (colibacteriosis) of bees is Escherichia coli (E. coli), which does not differ in properties from the causative agent of the disease in animals (see part 1, Escherichiosis). Honey bees, bumblebees, like most other insects, do not have specific E. coli. Serotypes of E. coli are isolated from the body of healthy and sick bees: 0119, 0128, 0101, 0127, 0126, 0143, 055, 0103, 078, 018, 0126.
E. coli was found in the body of healthy honey bees and bumblebees in various regions of the globe; they were found in honeycomb. In healthy bees, the reproduction and development of E. coli occurs in the esophagus, honey goiter, middle intestine, and especially in the hind gut. During the flight period, 18.7 ... 36.4% of the bees in the family are infected.
Pathogen survival data are inconsistent. At a temperature of 4 ... 20 "C, they survive up to 7 days, can withstand heating to 60" C for 10 ... 15 minutes; at 37 ° C in honey viable 13 ... 60 days; in wax and wax at 14 ... 28 "C - 200 days, at 4" C - 210 days; on the combs - 240 days; in a 0.025% propolis solution - 1 day.
Epizootology. The disease is recorded in the winter-spring period. E. coli is more often isolated from wintering bees from apiaries located in the densely populated central regions of Russia. The source of infection is contaminated water sources and pollen.
Bees can be infected by feeding and injecting the cells of the pathogen into the hemocele of adult bees or by inoculating pupae. Often infected adults, weakened by a long content in the cage insects.
The spread of the pathogen within the family is facilitated by the intensive cleaning of honeycomb cells beginning at the end of winter and spring, and the exchange of feed between individuals.
E. coli was also found in female varroa ticks isolated from brood or from the bees themselves. The accumulation of a microorganism in the nest also contributes to the occurrence of the disease in bee families. The causative agent is easily transmitted with various contaminated equipment, which contributes to violations of the sanitary and hygienic conditions of insects.
Predisposing factors for the penetration of the microorganism from the contents of the intestine into the insect hemocoel are poor food, weakening of the bees' organism as a result of processing a large amount of sugar, the presence of a large number of old individuals among wintering bees, a disease may be played by nosematosis, etc.
d. Escherichiosis of bees can occur on its own or in association with proteosis.
649The disease of honey bees is relatively rare and only in individual apiaries, but can be accompanied by 75 ... 100% mortality of bee colonies. Sometimes families sharply weaken, poorly developed in the summer and recover only in the fall.
Pathogenesis. As with other enterobacterioses (see Hafniosis).
The course and clinical manifestation. The incubation period when feeding honey bees lasts 10 ... 12 days. Bees are very anxious during the wintering period, react poorly to knocking, lethargic, inactive, with a swollen abdomen, crawl out of the letka, and fetid stool masses covering the front wall and the inside of the hive abundantly. Near the hive and at its bottom there are a large number of dead bees with an unpleasant odor. Fly around unfriendly. In infected pupae, the cuticle quickly darkens, some of them die, adult small bees with a shortened abdomen form from the survivors. Signs of damage can be observed until the end of the main honey collection. Sick families are unproductive and cannot provide themselves with food for wintering.
Pathological signs. Pathological changes are similar to those with other enterobacterioses.
Diagnostics and differential diagnostics. A preliminary diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory results. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the allocation of the pathogen from the bee’s hemocoel taking into account the signs of the disease and the epizootic situation. For diagnosis, 30 bees with signs of disease or fresh corpses of insects are sent to the laboratory. Diagnosis is carried out according to the Methodological guidelines for the diagnosis of bee coli.
The disease is differentiated from other enterobacterioses and nosematosis.
Treatment. Penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and many other antibiotics and sulfa drugs are used to treat sick bees. Within 1 day after the start of therapy, the number of bacteria in the middle intestine significantly decreases.
Prevention and control measures. Similar to those with other enterobacterioses.
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