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Swine flu

Swine flu (swine enfluence) - (swine influenza) is a highly contagious, acute illness characterized by a sudden onset, rapid coverage of a large number of animals, pronounced fever and respiratory failure.

Etiology. The causative agent is myxovirus type A, predominantly a serotype (Myxovirus influenza A) of the Orthomixoviridae family. It is relatively little resistant to factors of physical and chemical exposure. Heating it to 600 ° C completely inactivates it for 20 minutes. At - 20-700С some months remain. Virus A (Iowa 15/31) is antigenically related to the serotype A. avian influenza virus.

Epizootological data. The disease occurs exclusively in the winter during the cold season and covers all the available livestock. The disease spreads quickly, especially when changing climatic conditions. The mortality rate among piglets of weaning age can reach up to 5%, and among fattened pigs less than 1%. Repeated infection occurs with an interval of 10-14 months, in the autumn-winter period.

The main source of the causative agent of infection are sick animals, regardless of whether the disease has proceeded in a clinical or latent form. The reason for the introduction of infection can be attendants and poultry. It is assumed that the swine flu virus is a mixture of viruses of avian and human origin. Pulmonary helminths (Metagastrongilus elangatus, Chacrostrongilus puderdorectus) are a reservoir of infection that release infected eggs to influenza virus to the external environment. The latter are captured by earthworms, in which the virus can persist for up to 18 months.

Isolation of the pathogen occurs mainly with the expiration of the nose and sputum. Infection occurs through airborne droplets.

The course and symptoms. The incubation period lasts 1-5 days, usually 1-3 days. The disease occurs suddenly. In patients with body temperature rises to 410C and is held for 3-7 days. Pigs are oppressed, reluctant to rise, refuse to feed and most of the time of the day lie. They develop conjunctivitis and serous discharge from the nose, which in severe cases of the disease can be frothy, stained with blood in pink.
Breathing is rapid and difficult. Then edema and pneumonia develops.

In industrial complexes, often after the first period of the disease, which is characterized by the acute course and development of pneumonia, the second period of the disease begins, characterized by progressive depletion and development of polyserosis caused by hemophilic bacteria (Haemophilus parasuis). By 10-15 days of illness, polyarthritis often develops.

Pathological changes. The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, trachea and bronchi is swollen, hyperemic, sometimes with hemorrhages, covered with a viscous mucous exudate, which in some cases is removed from the surface of the mucosa in the form of films. On lungs dot and striped hemorrhages are found. In more severe cases, serous-catarrhal bronchopneumonia is noted. Pneumonic foci are located mainly in the upper and cardiac lobes of the lung, but it happens that the process captures all the lobes of the lung.

Lymph nodes, especially mediastinal, pharyngeal and submandibular are enlarged and swollen.

Diagnosis. It is based on clinical, epizootological, pathological and laboratory data, including virus isolation in laboratory animals (white mice), CE (9-12 daily), cell culture (pig kidney), followed by virus indication and identification, as well as detection of specific antibodies to RTG , RSK, NR and IFA.

Differential diagnosis. Swine flu is differentiated from mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, and the respiratory form of Aujeszky's disease.

Treatment. Not developed. Symptomatic agents and antibacterial drugs are used to prevent complications from bacterial microflora.

Prevention and control measures. In some countries, inactivated vaccines are used. For non-specific prophylaxis, animals re-entering the farm are quarantined, do not allow dampness, crowding, hypothermia, interruptions in feeding and full-value feeding in pigsty.

If swine flu occurs, measures are taken to stop the infection and prevent its spread.
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Swine flu

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