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Swine flu (swine enfluence) - (swine influenza) is a highly contagious, acute illness characterized by a sudden onset, rapid coverage of a large number of animals, pronounced fever and respiratory failure.
Etiology. The causative agent is myxovirus type A, predominantly a serotype (Myxovirus influenza A) of the Orthomixoviridae family. It is relatively little resistant to factors of physical and chemical exposure. Heating it to 600 ° C completely inactivates it for 20 minutes. At - 20-700С some months remain. Virus A (Iowa 15/31) is antigenically related to the serotype A. avian influenza virus.
Epizootological data. The disease occurs exclusively in the winter during the cold season and covers all the available livestock. The disease spreads quickly, especially when changing climatic conditions. The mortality rate among piglets of weaning age can reach up to 5%, and among fattened pigs less than 1%. Repeated infection occurs with an interval of 10-14 months, in the autumn-winter period.
The main source of the causative agent of infection are sick animals, regardless of whether the disease has proceeded in a clinical or latent form. The reason for the introduction of infection can be attendants and poultry. It is assumed that the swine flu virus is a mixture of viruses of avian and human origin. Pulmonary helminths (Metagastrongilus elangatus, Chacrostrongilus puderdorectus) are a reservoir of infection that release infected eggs to influenza virus to the external environment. The latter are captured by earthworms, in which the virus can persist for up to 18 months.
Isolation of the pathogen occurs mainly with the expiration of the nose and sputum. Infection occurs through airborne droplets.
The course and symptoms. The incubation period lasts 1-5 days, usually 1-3 days. The disease occurs suddenly. In patients with body temperature rises to 410C and is held for 3-7 days. Pigs are oppressed, reluctant to rise, refuse to feed and most of the time of the day lie. They develop conjunctivitis and serous discharge from the nose, which in severe cases of the disease can be frothy, stained with blood in pink.
Breathing is rapid and difficult. Then edema and pneumonia develops.
In industrial complexes, often after the first period of the disease, which is characterized by the acute course and development of pneumonia, the second period of the disease begins, characterized by progressive depletion and development of polyserosis caused by hemophilic bacteria (Haemophilus parasuis). By 10-15 days of illness, polyarthritis often develops.
Pathological changes. The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, trachea and bronchi is swollen, hyperemic, sometimes with hemorrhages, covered with a viscous mucous exudate, which in some cases is removed from the surface of the mucosa in the form of films. On lungs dot and striped hemorrhages are found. In more severe cases, serous-catarrhal bronchopneumonia is noted. Pneumonic foci are located mainly in the upper and cardiac lobes of the lung, but it happens that the process captures all the lobes of the lung.
Lymph nodes, especially mediastinal, pharyngeal and submandibular are enlarged and swollen.
Diagnosis. It is based on clinical, epizootological, pathological and laboratory data, including virus isolation in laboratory animals (white mice), CE (9-12 daily), cell culture (pig kidney), followed by virus indication and identification, as well as detection of specific antibodies to RTG , RSK, NR and IFA.
Differential diagnosis. Swine flu is differentiated from mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, and the respiratory form of Aujeszky's disease.
Treatment. Not developed. Symptomatic agents and antibacterial drugs are used to prevent complications from bacterial microflora.
Prevention and control measures. In some countries, inactivated vaccines are used. For non-specific prophylaxis, animals re-entering the farm are quarantined, do not allow dampness, crowding, hypothermia, interruptions in feeding and full-value feeding in pigsty.
If swine flu occurs, measures are taken to stop the infection and prevent its spread.
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- SWINE FLU
Swine flu [lat. - Influenza suis; English - Swine influenza, Swine (Hog, Pig) flu; swine influenza, enzootic bronchopneumonia] - a highly cocontagial, acute illness of predominantly young animals, characterized by fever, catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, conjunctiva and lung damage. Historical background, distribution, degree
- Annex 4 Influenza A (H5N1) virus infection (“Avian influenza”)
Avian influenza is a highly contagious viral infection that can affect all species of birds. Of domestic species, turkeys and chickens are most sensitive. Wild bird species can serve as carriers of infection. The natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (VHP) are waterfowl, which are most often responsible for the introduction of the infection into households. Etiology. VGP belong to
- Countries with reported avian influenza and a global plan of WHO anti-influenza events
To date, human cases have been reported in seven countries, most of which are located in Asia: Vietnam, Indonesia, Iraq, Cambodia, China, Thailand and Turkey. The first patients registered in Vietnam showed symptoms of the disease during the current outbreak in December 2003, and H5N1 infection was confirmed on January 11, 2004. Messages from Thailand
- Biologically active proteins of the influenza virus. Transcriptase activity in influenza cells and virions
RV OIMPSON and VD BIN (RW SIMPSON, WJ BEAN, JR.) I. INTRODUCTION This chapter “deals with a rather new section in the biology of the influenza virus, and therefore most of the information is fragmentary in terms of its composition C a large number of outstanding issues. The basic statement on which this chapter is based is that mycoviruses are viruses with a negative genome.
- Kilburn, ED. Flu and flu viruses (1978), 1978
The book is devoted to a review of a variety of influenza viruses, their cultivation, biochemistry, and features of the molecular device. Content: Influenza and flu viruses. The structure of the influenza virus. Biologically active proteins of the influenza virus. Hemagglutinin. Biologically active proteins of the influenza virus. Neuraminidase. Transcriptase activity in influenza cells and virions. Ribonucleic acid viruses
- Flu viruses and flu
E. D. KILBURN (E. D. KILBOURNE) I. INTRODUCTION. INFLUENZA - DISEASE WITH NONMENDABLE SYMPTOMATIC, CAUSED BY A CHANGING VIRUS A huge interest in modern virology for influenza and viruses responsible for its occurrence requires an explanation, if we take into account the ordinary nature of the symptoms of this usually very mild infectious disease
Influenza (from fr. Grippe)? acute infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by influenza virus. Included in the group of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI). Periodically distributed in the form of epidemics and pandemics. Currently, more than 2,000 variants of the influenza virus have been identified, which differ in the antigenic spectrum. Often, the word "flu" in everyday life is also called any acute
Raphael Dolin Definition. Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Infection affects the upper and / or lower respiratory tract and is often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache, myalgia, weakness. Outbreaks of disease of varying duration and severity, occurring almost every winter, lead to
- BIRD FLU
Avian influenza (Latin - Grippus avium; English - Infuenza; highly pathogenic avian influenza, classical plague, chicken flu A, exudative typhoid, Dutch chicken plague) - a contagious disease characterized by oppression, edema, lesion of the respiratory organs, digestion, depression, leaking with varying degrees of severity (from asymptomatic infection to severe generalized forms of septicemia). Disease
Influenza is an acute infectious disease caused by various types of influenza viruses. It is characterized by acute onset, fever, general intoxication, and lesion of the respiratory tract. It occurs mainly in the form of epidemics in winter. In severe cases, hemorrhagic bronchitis, pneumonia may occur; possible death. Main pathogens in Europe and Russia
- Swine fever (CLASSIC swine fever)
Infectious, highly contagious viral disease, characterized by acute septicemia and hemorrhagic diathesis, with subacute and chronic - croupous pneumonia and croupous-diphtheritic colitis. Under natural conditions, only domestic and wild pigs of all breeds and ages are sick with plague; high-breed pigs are more susceptible to the virus. Pathogen - RSH-containing
Influenza is an acute viral infection characterized by intoxication and damage to the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract with a predominance of tracheitis. Influenza virus is divided into types A, B, and C. Influenza A epidemics are explosive in nature: 20–50% of the population has been ill for 1–1.5 months. Flu epidemics caused by virus B usually last 2.5–3 months, covering no more than 25%
Physical blockage Influenza is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract, the symptoms of which are: feeling tired and weak, high fever, coughing attacks, headache and a bad cold. In most cases, a person with the flu must be kept in bed for several days. Emotional blocking Having fallen ill with the flu, the body says: "Everything, it will not go further." Flu
- Flu horses
Equine influenza (grippus equorum) is an infectious, acutely occurring contagious disease characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, general depression, short-term fever and a dry, painful cough; in severe cases, pneumonia develops. Etiology. The causative agent of equine influenza is an RNA-containing virus that is sensitive to the effects of high temperatures at low
Acute respiratory disease of viral etiology, characterized by the syndrome of general infectious intoxication and inflammation of the respiratory tract. Caused by viruses A, B and C. The source of infection is only a sick person with obvious and erased forms of infection. Maximum infectiousness - the first 2-3 days of illness. Virus isolation in the uncomplicated form of the disease ends by 5-6 days
- Human flu
RG DOUGLAS (RG DOUGLAS) INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to describe the infection caused by the influenza virus in humans, since it is the morbidity “mortality in this infection that makes the flu so serious a problem for medicine and public health. The nature of this book does not (allows you to discuss in detail the treatment and differential diagnosis, as is done in the medical reference books.
- HORSE FLU
Equine influenza (Latin - Grippus; Eng. - Equine influenza; equine influenza) - acute acute contagious disease characterized by short-term, intermittent fever, catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, dry and painful cough. Historical background, distribution, degree of danger and damage. The flu of horses was first described by Ya. E. Kolyakov and D.
- Bird flu
Avian influenza (influenzae avium) is an acute highly contagious disease of birds, which is accompanied by damage to the respiratory organs, the gastrointestinal tract, edema, and septicemia. Etiology. The causative agent is a complex RNA-containing epitheliotropic virus from the Orthomyxoviridae family, the Influenavirus genus. There are 13 subspecies of influenza A virus, and the subtype classification
- Flu virus structure
P. V. SHOPPIN AND R. V. KOMPANS (PW CHOPPIN, I. W. COMPANS) I. INTRODUCTION The study of the influenza virus was for a long time at the forefront of structural research in virology. Influenza virus was one of the first to be studied: using electron microscopy (Taylor et al., 1943), and using this particular object as a model, it was “shown that some viruses
Cause of influenza virus. The source of infection is a sick person, especially in the initial stage of the flu, in the first week of illness. Transmission occurs through airborne droplets. Symptoms: Constant chills, fever of the body during the day to 40 °. Symptoms of general toxicity are clearly manifested (fever, general weakness, muscle pain, severe headaches and pain in