Licensed books on medicine
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The chemical composition of honey is very complex and diverse (Table 29). It contains over 100 components necessary for the body. These substances can be represented as follows:
As can be seen from the table, the main components of honey are fruit (fructose) and grape (glucose) sugar. Fruit sugar is usually more (40%) than grape (35%). The amount of fruit and grape sugars is different for different honey.
The mixture of fruit and grape sugars is called invert sugar, as it is obtained from nectar as a result of the decomposition of sucrose in the honey of a bee and in honeycombs under the action of the enzyme invertase. Usually, the bulk of cane sugar (sucrose) contained in the nectar of plants is converted almost completely into invert sugar and only a small amount of it remains unconverted. The process of the in-version ^ t \ ^ lgre ^ p ^ ui ^ sh ^ sah? Oz1 into glucose and fructose under the action of enzymes, continues in freshly pumped honey and during its storage.
Glucose and fructose are the simplest sugars belonging to the group of monosaccharides (С6Н1206). Such sugars are absorbed by the human body easily and without splitting them with intestinal enzymes.
Cane sugar is more complex. It consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose, which is why it belongs to the group of disaccharides (С ^ НггОц). To be absorbed by the body, it must also be subjected to the action of intestinal enzymes. Thus, the main nutritional value of honey is carbohydrates. Honey contains dextrins in small quantities. They are the decay products of starch.
They give sweet honey, their nutritional dignity is very low.
The nitrogenous compounds of honey are represented by plant proteins, which bees bring along with pollen. Proteins of animal origin fall into honey with the bee's digestive juices. In the honey and those and others a little.
Organic and inorganic acids of honey are diverse in composition. Most of the honey contains organic acids: malic, formic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, lactic, etc. The honey contains inorganic acids too little: hydrochloric, phosphoric. Honey is a clearly acidic product, its active acidity is on average 3.78 (3.76-4.36).
The mineral composition of honey depends on the soil on which flowering honey plants grow. They get into honey with pollen and partly from nectar. Aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, vanadium, bismuth, gallium, germanium, iron, gold, potassium, calcium, silicon, lithium, magnesium, manganese, copper, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, radium, lead, silver, strontium are found in honey , titanium, phosphorus, chromium, zinc and zirconium.
Honey contains a significant amount of vitamins. They are mainly represented by group B (Bi, B2, B3, B5, B6). A small amount of vitamins are H, K, C, E and provitamin A.
Honey enzymes are represented by diastase, invertase, catalase, lipase.
The nature of the coloring matter has not yet been fully studied. They are considered to belong to the group of carotene, chlorophyll, xanthophil, etc. Aromatic substances are represented by essential oils.
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- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELLS AND ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The elemental composition of the cell (protoplasm). In order to clearly imagine the biological and physico-chemical properties of tissues, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of cell protoplasm. In addition to water, there are a large number of elements in the protoplasm. The finest chemical studies have found that of the 104 elements of the periodic system of DI Mendeleev, 96 are part of the protoplasm. Four
- The chemical composition of water. Water pollution: physical, chemical, bacteriological. The ability of water sources to self-purification
The chemical composition of water. In nature, water almost always contains more or less mineral salts dissolved in it. The degree and mineral composition of water is determined by the nature of the soil or soils adjacent to aquifers or surface water sources. The amount of mineral salts contained in water is expressed in mg / l. Organic matter. Of these, the most important are
- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
The chemical composition of meat is very complex and depends on the type of animal, age, sex, fatness, level of feeding and other factors. Significantly changes the chemical composition of the meat of animals in severe pathological conditions. The chemical composition of meat includes: water, proteins, fats and lipids, carbohydrates, extractives, minerals, vitamins, enzymes and hormones. Chemical composition
- Soil chemistry
It is now established that about 60 different chemical elements are contained in the human body, which is about 0.6% of the total weight. The presence of trace elements at least in small quantities is constantly associated with their role in the assimilation of nitrogen and photosynthesis. Only to maintain the normal composition of human blood requires about 25 trace elements, and the composition of breast milk includes
- The chemical composition of bone tissue.
The study of the chemical composition of bone tissue is fraught with considerable difficulties, since demineralization of the bone is required to isolate the organic matrix. In addition, the content and composition of the organic matrix are subject to significant changes depending on the degree of mineralization of bone tissue. It is known that with prolonged treatment of the bone in dilute acid solutions
- The total chemical composition of viruses
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- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACIDS
Nucleic acids were first discovered by I. F. Misher in 1868. He isolated a special substance of an acidic nature from the nuclei of cells and called it nuclein. Subsequently, he was given the name "nucleic acid". Two types of nucleic acids were found. They were named depending on the carbohydrate component included in the composition. Nucleic acid, which contains the carbohydrate deoxyribose, was named
- Air chemistry
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- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MILK
Milk consists of more than 300 components, the main of which are water, proteins, fat, lactose, trace elements, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, etc. Water is an environment in which all other milk components are dissolved or distributed, forming a stable colloidal system that allows milk to various technological processes. 95-97% of water is in a free state. This water can
- Chemical composition and nutritional value of cow's milk
The chemical composition of milk depends on the breed of animals, the lection period, the nature of feed, the way of milking. The chemical composition of milk: proteins - 3.2%, fats - 3.4%, lactose - 4.6%, mineral salts - 0.75%, water - 87–89%, dry residue - 11 —17%. Milk proteins have a high biological value. Their digestibility is 96.0%. Essential amino acids are contained in sufficient quantities and optimal
- Air chemistry
Atmospheric air is a mixture of various gases. It contains permanent atmospheric components (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide), inert gases (argon, helium, neon, krypton, hydrogen, xenon, radon), small amounts of ozone, nitrous oxide, methane, iodine, water vapor, and in varying amounts, various impurities of natural origin and pollution, which are formed in
- The chemical composition and structure of the grain
Cereal products occupy a large place in the diet and make up about 50% of the daily energy value of the food rations of the population in most regions of our country. Grain is a raw material for many branches of the food industry, it is used in animal husbandry as feed. Grain crops such as rye, wheat, barley, buckwheat, rice, oats,
- MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MEAT
Depending on the type of wild animals, their meat differs in organoleptic characteristics, morphological and chemical composition, taste and culinary qualities. In meat of young animals, in contrast to adult meat, there is less fat and more loose connective tissue. Fat in wild animals is deposited under the skin, in the pelvic cavity, in the lumbar part, near the kidneys, and only with high fatness in
- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FISH MEAT
By calorie content and taste, fish meat is not inferior to the meat of warm-blooded animals. In culinary processing is almost the entire body of the fish, except for internal organs, with the exception of caviar, cod liver. In the manufacture of canned food, the content of edible parts is increased due to the bones, which, after processing, are edible. The nutritional value of fish is determined by the content of high-grade proteins, fat,
- Morphological structure and chemical composition of chromosomes
Microscopic analysis of chromosomes primarily reveals their differences in shape and size. The structure of each chromosome is purely individual. You can also notice that chromosomes have common morphological features. They consist of two strands - chromatids, arranged in parallel and interconnected at one point, called a centromere or primary constriction. On some chromosomes
- EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FACTORS ON MILK PRODUCTIVITY, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF MILK
Milk productivity, organoleptic, physicochemical, and technological properties of milk depend on the lactation period, breed, age, feeding quality, housing conditions, health status, milking regimen, exercise, season, and individual characteristics of lactating animals. Lactation periods. Lactation, in terms of changes in the composition and properties of milk, can be divided into 3
- Appendix 3 Chemical composition (g) and energy value (kcal) 100 g of edible part of products
- Soil composition
The soil consists of mineral, organic compounds and organo-mineral complexes, as well as soil solutions, soil air and soil microorganisms (abiotic and biotic components). For a hygienic assessment of the degree of soil contamination, it is important to know its natural composition, since virtually any statistically significant deviation from the natural composition of this type of soil
- Geochemical composition and toxicological significance of the soil
The chemical composition of the soil is complex and is represented by mineral (inorganic) and organic substances. Minerals are 60-80% represented by crystalline silica or quartz. A significant place in the mineralogical composition of the soil is occupied by aluminosilicates (natural clays) capable of ion exchange. Soil organic matter is represented as its own organic matter.
- The composition of the drinkers
• Dissolve 1 teaspoon of borax in 1 cup of hot water and moisten slices of bread with this solution, which can then be scattered in places where cockroaches are found. It should be borne in mind that borax is poisonous to humans, so it should be used with caution. • Dissolve 10 g of “Chlorofos” in 1 l of water, pour the resulting solution into pharmacy vials, insert gauze wicks into them and place in the same