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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

The chemical composition of honey is very complex and diverse (Table 29). It contains over 100 components necessary for the body. These substances can be represented as follows:

As can be seen from the table, the main components of honey are fruit (fructose) and grape (glucose) sugar. Fruit sugar is usually more (40%) than grape (35%). The amount of fruit and grape sugars is different for different honey.

The mixture of fruit and grape sugars is called invert sugar, as it is obtained from nectar as a result of the decomposition of sucrose in the honey of a bee and in honeycombs under the action of the enzyme invertase. Usually, the bulk of cane sugar (sucrose) contained in the nectar of plants is converted almost completely into invert sugar and only a small amount of it remains unconverted. The process of the in-version ^ t \ ^ lgre ^ p ^ ui ^ sh ^ sah? Oz1 into glucose and fructose under the action of enzymes, continues in freshly pumped honey and during its storage.

Glucose and fructose are the simplest sugars belonging to the group of monosaccharides (С6Н1206). Such sugars are absorbed by the human body easily and without splitting them with intestinal enzymes.

Cane sugar is more complex. It consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose, which is why it belongs to the group of disaccharides (С ^ НггОц). To be absorbed by the body, it must also be subjected to the action of intestinal enzymes. Thus, the main nutritional value of honey is carbohydrates. Honey contains dextrins in small quantities. They are the decay products of starch.
They give sweet honey, their nutritional dignity is very low.

The nitrogenous compounds of honey are represented by plant proteins, which bees bring along with pollen. Proteins of animal origin fall into honey with the bee's digestive juices. In the honey and those and others a little.

Organic and inorganic acids of honey are diverse in composition. Most of the honey contains organic acids: malic, formic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, lactic, etc. The honey contains inorganic acids too little: hydrochloric, phosphoric. Honey is a clearly acidic product, its active acidity is on average 3.78 (3.76-4.36).

The mineral composition of honey depends on the soil on which flowering honey plants grow. They get into honey with pollen and partly from nectar. Aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, vanadium, bismuth, gallium, germanium, iron, gold, potassium, calcium, silicon, lithium, magnesium, manganese, copper, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, radium, lead, silver, strontium are found in honey , titanium, phosphorus, chromium, zinc and zirconium.

Honey contains a significant amount of vitamins. They are mainly represented by group B (Bi, B2, B3, B5, B6). A small amount of vitamins are H, K, C, E and provitamin A.

Honey enzymes are represented by diastase, invertase, catalase, lipase.

The nature of the coloring matter has not yet been fully studied. They are considered to belong to the group of carotene, chlorophyll, xanthophil, etc. Aromatic substances are represented by essential oils.
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

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