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Chlamydiosis (chlamydiosis) is a contagious disease of many animal species, characterized by the development of pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, polyarthritis, encephalitis and urogenetic pathology. Zooanthroponosis.
Etiology. The causative agent of the disease are bacteria of the species Chlamydia psittaci, Ch. pneymoniae, Ch. trachomatis, which are obligate intracellular parasites, which are characterized by a unique development cycle with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions. Chlamydia is predominantly round in shape with a diameter of 0.2-0.5 microns, multiply by binary division, contain RNA and DNA, are cultivated on chicken embryos, do not form spores and capsules, are motionless.
Epizootology. Chlamydia infection is widespread among dogs and cats, foxes and arctic foxes.
In addition, chlamydia affects a large number of species of farm animals and more than 70 species of birds, as well as a significant number of wild animals, fish, amphibians, insects, creating a natural reservoir of this infection, which contributes to the emergence of secondary foci of chlamydia. They are also isolated from hares and muskrats. The possibility of interspecific transmission of the pathogen has been established.
Chlamydia most often affects animals aged 5 weeks to 9 months.
The source of the pathogen is sick animals and bacteria carriers, as well as animals with a latent form of the disease, which secrete the pathogen into the external environment with outflows from the eyes and nasal cavities, as well as sneezing and snorting, with urine and feces, with saliva and exudate of the genital tract. Infection food, water, care items, wool, and work clothes serve as transmission factors for the pathogen. Infection occurs through the respiratory and alimentary routes, as well as through direct contact, through damaged areas of the skin, in utero and sexually.
The disease manifests itself in the form of sporadic cases. There is no strict seasonality, but stationarity is established.
Pathogenesis. Having entered the body, the pathogen multiplies in the epithelial cells of the mucous membranes and macrophages. Then it penetrates into the bloodstream and is introduced into the internal organs, lymph nodes, joints, and even into the brain and spinal cord, where it causes inflammatory and dystrophic processes.
Symptoms and course. The incubation period lasts 5-10 days. The disease is acute (80%) and chronically (20%).
In the acute course of the disease, conjunctivitis (85.4%) and rhinitis (88.4%) often develop at the beginning of serous and then catarrhal-purulent.
At the onset of the disease, mild fever usually lasts several days. Moreover, animals retain their appetite. Conjunctivitis lasts from several days to several months and sometimes takes a chronic course. Initially, one is affected, and then both eyes.
Pneumonia and diarrhea occur subclinically.
Quite often, abortions and peritonitis are recorded.
Pathological changes. At autopsy, catarrhal bronchopneumonia, serous-purulent conjunctivitis, rhinitis, serous-fibrinous pericarditis, granular dystrophy of the liver, kidneys and myocardium, spleen hyperplasia are detected.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis is made comprehensively taking into account epizootological data, clinical signs, results of postmortem autopsy and laboratory tests.
The result of the studies is considered positive in the isolation and identification of chlamydia from the material. In addition, immunological methods have been proposed for the diagnosis of chlamydia: RSK, RIF, ELISA and PCR.
When making a diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude plague, pasteurellosis, mycoplasmosis, herpes virus infection (in cats), infectious rhinitis and keratoconjunctivitis, listeriosis, where laboratory research is of primary importance.
Treatment. When providing therapeutic care, it should be noted that chlamydia is resistant to sulfonamides, neomycin, biomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. There are no specific treatments.
The most effective drugs are the tetracycline series (oxytetracycline, tetracycline hydrochloride, doxycycline, chlortetracycline), but at the same time, dairy products containing calcium and magnesium ions that form tetracycline series (except doxycycline) form insoluble complexes should be excluded from the diet.
With chlamydia, the use of immunostimulating drugs is also recommended: T-activin, immunofan, comedone, ribotan, cycloferon, mixoferon, anandine.
Prevention and control measures. These activities include strict observance of veterinary-sanitary and zoohygienic rules, empty-busy principles, microclimate, and timing of disinfection.
A clinical examination is carried out daily, according to the results of which, taking into account serological studies, sick animals are isolated and treated. Manure is disinfected biothermally, corpses are destroyed, forced disinfection is carried out using a 3% hot solution of sodium hydroxide, a 2% solution of formalin, a clarified solution of bleach (containing 3% active chlorine), and a 5% solution of soda ash.
In order to create active immunity, a vaccine against panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis, calicivirus infection and chlamydia infection in cats (inactivated) - Multifel-4.
The economy is considered safe in the absence of sick animals in it; with negative results of serological studies of the entire population and after the final veterinary and sanitary measures.
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