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Chlamydia

Chlamydia (chlamydiosis) is a contagious disease of many animal species characterized by the development of pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, polyarthritis, encephalitis, and urogenital pathology. Zooanthroponosis.

Etiology. The causative agent of the disease are bacteria of the species Chlamydia psittaci, Ch. pneymoniae, Ch. trachomatis, which are obligate intracellular parasites, which are characterized by a unique development cycle with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions. Chlamydia is predominantly round with a diameter of 0.2-0.5 μm, they multiply by binary division, contain RNA and DNA, are cultured in chicken embryos, do not form spores and capsules, they are immobile.

Epizootology. Chlamydia infection is widespread among dogs and cats, foxes and foxes.

In addition, chlamydia affect a large number of species of farm animals and over 70 species of birds, as well as a significant number of wild animals, fish, amphibians, and insects, creating a natural reservoir of this infection, which contributes to the emergence of chlamydia secondary foci. They are also distinguished from hares and muskrats. The possibility of interspecific transmission of the pathogen.

Chlamydia most often affects animals between the ages of 5 weeks and 9 months.

The source of the pathogen is sick animals and bacteria carriers, as well as animals with a latent form of the disease, which release the pathogen to the external environment with outflows from the eyes and nasal cavities, as well as sneezing and snorting, with urine and feces, with saliva and exudate of the genital tract. The causative agent’s transmission factors are infected feed, water, care items, wool, overalls. Infection occurs through the respiratory and alimentary route, as well as through direct contact, through damaged skin, in utero and sexually.

The disease manifests itself in the form of sporadic cases. There is no strict seasonality, but stationarity is established.

Pathogenesis. Introduced into the body, the pathogen multiplies in the epithelial cells of the mucous membranes and macrophages. Then it penetrates the blood and is brought into the internal organs, lymph nodes, joints, and even into the brain and spinal cord, where it causes inflammatory and dystrophic processes.

Symptoms and course. The incubation period lasts 5-10 days. The disease is acute (80%) and chronically (20%).

In acute, the disease often develops conjunctivitis (85.4%) and rhinitis (88.4%) at the beginning of serous, and then catarrhal-purulent.

At the onset of the disease, mild fever usually lasts for several days. Moreover, animals retain their appetite. Conjunctivitis lasts from several days to several months and sometimes takes a chronic course. Initially, one is affected, and then both eyes.

Pneumonia and diarrhea occur subclinically.
Quite often, abortion and peritonitis are recorded.

Pathological changes. At autopsy, catarrhal bronchopneumonia, serous-purulent conjunctivitis, rhinitis, serous-fibrinous pericarditis, granular dystrophy of the liver, kidneys and myocardium, spleen hyperplasia are found.

Diagnosis. The diagnosis is made comprehensively, taking into account the epizootological data, clinical signs, the results of post-mortem examination and laboratory tests.

The result of research is considered positive in the isolation and identification of chlamydia from the material. In addition, for the diagnosis of chlamydia proposed immunological methods: RSK, RIF, ELISA and PCR.

When making a diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude plague, pasteurellosis, mycoplasmosis, herpes virus infection (in cats), infectious rhinitis and keratoconjunctivitis, listeriosis, where laboratory research is of primary importance.

Treatment. When providing therapeutic care, it should be noted that chlamydia is resistant to sulfonamides, neomycin, biomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. Specific treatment is not.

Tetracycline preparations (oxytetracycline, tetracycline hydrochloride, doxycycline, chlorotetracycline) are the most effective, but dairy products containing calcium and magnesium ions, which form insoluble complexes with tetracycline preparations (except doxycycline), should be excluded from the diet.

In case of chlamydia, the use of immunostimulating drugs is also recommended: T-activin, immunofan, comedone, ribotan, cycloferon, myxoferon, anandin.

Prevention and control measures. These measures include strict adherence to the veterinary-sanitary and zoohygienic rules, the principles of "empty-busy", the microclimate, the timing of disinfection.

A clinical examination is conducted daily, the results of which, taking into account serological studies, isolate and treat sick animals. Manure is disinfected biothermally, the corpses are destroyed, forced disinfection is carried out using a 3% hot solution of sodium hydroxide, a 2% solution of formalin, a clarified solution of bleach (containing 3% active chlorine), a 5% solution of soda ash.

In order to create an active immunity, a vaccine against panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis, calicivirus infection and chlamydia in cats (inactivated) - Multifel –4 has been proposed.

The farm is considered safe in the absence of sick animals; with negative results of serological studies of the entire livestock and after the final veterinary and sanitary measures.
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Chlamydia

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