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Briefly describe (shape, size, color) and make a diagram - a sketch of the topography of the lymph nodes of the head, internal organs and cattle carcasses.

Lymph nodes of the head.

Submandibular lymph node - oval ln.mandibularis or

rounded shape (2.0 - 4.5 cm) is located between the submandibular salivary gland

and the inner surface of the submandibular branch, behind its vascular

clippings. The node is paired, collects lymph from the corresponding side of the skin of the lower and lateral jaws of the head, from the teeth, from the walls of the anterior half of the oral and nasal cavities, from the tongue, upper and lower lips, cheek, salivary glands.

Parotid lymph node - ln. An oval-shaped parotideus (6-9 cm) lies below the jaw joint in the posterior margin of the lower jaw.

The front half of it is covered with skin, and the back half is covered with the parotid salivary gland. Collects lymph from the skin and muscles of the head, from the upper and lower jaws, from the eyes, outer ear and bones of the skull, from the anterior half of the walls of the nasal cavity, from the upper and lower lips, chin, gums and from the extreme molars.

Zagoplasty middle lymph node - ln. retropharyngeus medialis

oval shape, 3-6 cm in length, located between the pharynx and flexors

heads at the base of the skull, between the ends of the branches of the hyoid bone, next to

the same node of the other side. Collects lymph from the walls of the mouth and

pharynx, from the root and deep parts of the tongue, from the back half of the nasal walls

cavities and paranasal sinuses, with tonsils, mandible, hypoglossal and

submandibular salivary glands, with larynx and head end of long flexor

heads.

Zaglottes lateral lymph node - ln.relropharyngues lateralis

(4-5cm) is in front of the wing of the atlas and partially or completely covered

posterior margin of the parotid salivary gland.

Cervical superficial lymph node - lnn cervicalis cyperficialis

oblong, 7–9 cm long, lies in front and slightly above the shoulder

shoulder joint.

Cervical deep lymph nodes - lnn. cervicalis profiendal -

subdivided into front, middle and rear. These nodes are small, located along the neck on the sides of the trachea: the front - near the thyroid gland, middle - in the back of the trachea, rear - in the lower part or near the first ribs.

Axillary lymph node - In. The xillaris (2.0 - 3.5 cm) is at the level of the third rib, between the shoulder-shoulder joint and the chest wall. Collects lymph from muscles, bones, joints and skin of the shoulder and forelimb. Gives the lymph axillary lymph node of the first rib.





Fig. 1. Superficial lymph nodes of cattle (from Koch, 1965):

1 — parotid lymph node, 2 — lateral pharyngeal lymph node, 3 — submandibular and mandibular lymph node, 4 — superficial cervical lymph node, 5 — axillary knot of the 1st rib, b — axillary own node, 7 — knee-joint, 8 - external sacral node, sciatic, 9 - popliteal lymph node.





Fig. 2. Deep bovine lymph nodes (from Koch, 1965):

1 - wing node, 2 - submandibular u., 3 - sublingual anterior u., 4 - pharyngeal medial u., 5 - sublingual posterior u., 6 - lateral pharyngeal u., 7 - deep cervical anterior u., 8 - deep cervical middle u., 9 - superficial cervical u., 10 - deep cervical posterior u., 11 - rib-neck u., 12 - chest node, 13 - sternum anterior u., 14 - sternum posterior, diaphragmatic u., 15 - mediastinal cranial left uy., 16 - intercostal uy., 17 - mediastinal superior yy., 18 - mediastinal posterior uy., 19 - bifurcation left yy., 20 - renal. ., 21 - lumbar aortic uu., 22 - iliac lateral uu., 23 - iliac medial u., 24 - pelvic u., 25 - sacral average u., 26 - sacral internal y., 27 - sciatic u, 28 - knot of the ischial tuberosity, 29 - superficial inguinal, or supramecular, yy, 30 - epigastular y., 31 - deep inguinal y.

Axillary lymph node of first rib - ln. axillaris primae cortae (0.75–1.5 cm) is located between the shoulder blade and the chest wall (at the level of the 1st rib), medially from the shoulder joint and the muscle of the thoraces profundus. Collects lymph from the pectoral muscles and partially from the shoulder girdle and wrist. Connects to the tracheal duct.

Ribal lymph node - ln. cortocervicalis (1.5 - 3.0 cm) - lies in front and medially from the first rib, on the side of the esophagus and trachea. It collects lymph from the deep muscles of the back of the neck (in the region of 4-7 vertebra), from the costal pleura (in the region of the first to fourth ribs), from the muscles of the scapula and the shoulder girdle. The expelling vessels are connected to the common thoracic duct.

Thoracic anterior lymph node - ln. stenalis cranialis (1.5-2.5 cm) unpaired, located in the recess of the anterior part of the sternum under the pleura. In addition to it, on the sides of the sternum, at the base of the ribs, another 2-3 smaller nodes are located. Thoracic lymph nodes collect lymph from the muscles surrounding the chest bone, and from the chest bone, from the lower part of the intercostal muscles, costal pleura and diaphragm, from the costal cartilage of the anterior part of the abdominal muscles, peritoneum and part of the liver, lymph passes to the chest or right lymphatic duct.

Intercostal lymph nodes - lnn. internestalis are small, are placed

near the heads of the ribs; lymph is collected from the dorsal musculature of the shoulder

belts, from the thoracic vertebrae, ribs and costal pleura, from the musculature of the thoracic

walls.
Their excretory ducts infuse into the dorsal mediastinal nodes.

- lnn.lumbales - some of them (small) lie at the intervertebral foramen

(sometimes absent), others (outer) from 0.5 to 4.0 cm are on the right,

dorsal of the aorta. Collect lymph from the lower back and back muscles and give it to the pelvic lymphatic trunk.

Inguinal deep lymph node - ln. The inguinalis profiendus is located at the beginning of the deep femoral artery, at the side of the entrance to the large pelvis. It is believed that in cattle these nodes are absent, and they correspond to two large nodes from the group of iliac medial lymph nodes.

Knee fold lymph node - ln. subiliacus large, up to 6-12 cm in length, is located in the fat layer of the knee fold in the area of ​​the iliac tuber, in front of the patella. Collects lymph from the skin, lower back, back, abdominal and back of the chest wall, part of the pelvis, thigh and lower leg. The excretory vessels go mainly to the iliac medial lymph nodes.

Inguinal superficial lymph nodes - lnn. Iguinalis superticialis is rather large, located above the back quarter of the udder (supra-elevated), cows may have two or three knots, in bulls such nodes lie under the pubic bones, behind the spermatic cord. Lymph is collected from the skin and muscles of the lower surface of the posterior part of the abdominal wall, from the skin and muscle layers of the inner surface of the thigh and lower leg to the hock, from the external genital argus.

Popliteal lymph node - ln. The popliteus is located on the gastrocnemius muscle, in the groove between the biceps of the thigh and the semitendinosus, and is surrounded by fat. It collects lymph from the skin, muscles, tendons and bones of the foot, partly from the lower leg, from the deep muscles of the back of the limbs, from the muscles of the tendons, ligaments, joints and bones of the middle part of the hind limb. Excretory ducts of this node flow into the deep inguinal, anterior pelvic, and sometimes the sciatic lymph nodes. To find the popliteal node, you need to make an incision along the groove between the biceps of the thigh and the semitendinosus at the level of the knee joint 6-8 cm deep. The knot is against the patella.

Bronchial lymph node - lnn. The bronchialis sinister is located in front of the left bronchus root, covered by the aortic arch. It collects lymph from the thoracic part of the trachea and esophagus, bronchi, heart and part of the lungs. Lymph enters the thoracic duct or into the outgoing trunk of the mediastinal lymph nodes.

Bronchial lymph node - ln. The bronchialis dexter is located on the right side of the trachea, at the apex of the right lung. Collects lymph from the apex of the lung, from the esophagus, trachea and the beginning of the bronchi. Lymph leads to the ducts of the mediastinal lymph nodes.

Lymph nodes of the liver - lnn. hepatici lie at the entrance gate of the liver, covered with pancreatic Deleza and sometimes with adipose tissue. Lymph is collected from the liver, pancreas, duodenum, and abomasum lymph nodes. The lymph flows through the excretory ducts, connecting with the intestinal trunk. From the surface and on the incision, the lymph nodes of the liver have a dark scarlet color and black spots.

Renal lymph nodes - lnnrenales are located at the exit of the renal arteries from the posterior aorta. Collect lymph from the kidneys. Excretory ducts flow into the lumbar lymphatic tank.

Gastrointestinal lymph nodes - lnn. gastrici are on the small and large curvature of the abomasum and on the surface of the rumen, nets and books. Lymph is collected from the stomach, duodenum and spleen. The lymph is given to the lumbar lymphatic cistern.

Mesenteric lymph nodes - lnn. mesenteriales lie in the mesentery along its attachment to the labyrinth of the intestine. Collects lymph from the interstitial spaces of the intestinal wall and the alimentary chyme from the lymphatic sinuses of the intestinal villi. The latter, mixing with the interstitial lymph, gives it a milky color; along the excretory ducts, the mixture of lymph with chyme then enters the abdominal cistern. Hence the name - “the milky cistern”.

Lymph nodes of large intestines - lnn. colon collect lymph from the walls of the intestines and give it to the abdominal cistern. From the large intestines the lymph flows into the lymph nodes located between the convolutions of the colon line.







Fig. 3. Lymph nodes of the lungs and bronchi of cattle, pigs, horses (from Koch, 1965).

And - cattle; B - pigs; B - horses: 1 - left and 2 - right bronchial nodes, 3 - medium bronchial units, 4 - pulmonary units, 5 - epierrial units.

Fig. 4. Lymph nodes in the organs of the abdominal cavity of cattle (from Koch, 1965):

1 - hepatic lymphatic trunk; 11 - gastric lymphatic trunk; III - celiac lymphatic trunk; IV — mesenteric lymphatic trunk; V - visceral lymphatic trunk: 1 — portal hepatic nodes, 2 — grid nodes, 3 — cicatricial right additional y, 4 — nodes of the vestibule of the scar, 5 — grid nodes and rennet, 6 — book nodes, 7 — dorsal rennet u, 8 - ventral rennet uy., 9 - right cicatricial yy., 10 - jejunal nodes, 11 - ileal nodes, 12 - cecum nodes. 13 - the nodes of the colon.
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Briefly describe (shape, size, color) and make a diagram - a sketch of the topography of the lymph nodes of the head, internal organs and cattle carcasses.

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