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Defects, defects and diseases of the horse's head

The horse's head is the first in evaluating the exterior and is characterized by the size, shape, profile and ratio of the frontal and front parts. The size of the head is associated with the features of the constitution and the development of the skeleton; its form is an indicator of breed;

Largest horse head is large, medium and small; in shape - coarse, tender; along the profile - straight, concave (pike) and convex or hunchbacked.

On the horse’s head, they examine eyes, ears, nostrils, lips, teeth and an oral cavity, a slap in the neck and a nape.

The eyes of the horse should be clean and clear and this indicates a state of vision. In fast-moving horses, the eyes are large, open, sometimes on a roll-out, moving; in heavy vehicles - more closed with fleshy eyelids and sedentary. Vices and visual impairments include various sizes and irregular shape of the eyes, a spot on the cornea, clouding of the lens, astigmatism, glaucoma, periodic blindness.
In case of poor eyesight, the horses place their ears asymmetrically (they spin the ears), raise their legs high on the move, stumble, and are shy. Pupil immobility (dark water) for changing lighting happens in blind horses. Clouding of the lens and spotting on the cornea indicates eye disease.

The most widespread defects, shortcomings and some diseases during examination of the horse's head are shown in table 1.





Table 1

Some flaws, defects and diseases possible on the horse’s head

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Defects, defects and diseases of the horse's head

  1. Deficiencies, Damages, and Defects of Horse Hooves
    The shape and strength of the hoofed horn depends on the breed, type of constitution, gender, age and conditions of detention. In heavy trucks, hooves are large with a slightly concave sole and softer, more fragile horn; in riding horses, hooves of a smaller size, a concave sole and a more dense and elastic horn. In horses, due to poor hoof care, incorrect foot positioning, poor horn quality, and severe
  2. Vices and shortcomings of the exterior of horses, reducing their use and breeding value
    When assessing the exterior of a horse, they often notice the uneven development of individual articles of the horse in an undesirable direction. Exterior defects and deficiencies reduce performance, reproductive qualities, breeding value and horse cost. Defects and shortcomings of articles of a horse are revealed during examination and assessment of the head, trunk, front and hind limbs. Deviations (defects) from
  3. Vices and weaknesses of exterior articles
    For breeding under conditions of industrial technology, constitutionally strong, proportionately folded, healthy animals are suitable, without obvious signs of defects in the structure of individual articles. The following malformations reduce the breeding value of animals: malocclusion (shortening of one of the jaws), pug-shaped (formed when the angle between the frontal and nasal bones approaches a straight line),
  4. BLOOD VESSELS AND SUBCUTANEOUS HEAD STRUCTURES
    The following ten topics are devoted exclusively to the head, partly because of its complexity, but also because of the likelihood of involvement in the pathological process (laryngitis, sinusitis) and age determination (teeth). The first selection of patterns shows the surface of the head (33.1) along with the corresponding image of the subcutaneous structures (33.2) after skin removal. The skin on the face, as well as on the medial surface
  5. DEEP STRUCTURES AND CAVES OF THE HORSE HEAD
    The following figures are a preliminary overview of some head cavities. The head (34.2) and the skull (34. 1) were cut in the sagittal plane slightly to the side of the median plane, and the head was also cut across across the muzzle at about the level of the second molars (34.4). The last figure shows the position of the main head cavities projected onto the image.
  6. SURFACE ANATOMY OF THE HEAD AND NECK OF THE HORSE
    The following figures attempt to depict most of the structures of the head and neck that are connected to the surface by palpation, or visualization in projection onto the surface. {foto198} Fig. 44.1. Superficial anatomy of the head and neck, front view. Bones, joints and ligaments: 1. Nasal process of the incisal bone. 2. Nasocutaneous notch. 3. The tip of the nose. 4. Record
  7. CHEWABLE MUSCLES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRIPLE NERVE ON THE HORSE HEAD
    Jaws and chewing muscles are the main components that give the head a shape and shape. The muscles of the lips and cheeks (36.1) are the components of the facial muscles that control the lips (the circular muscle of the mouth) and affect the wall of the oral vestibule (buccal muscles), and are also used for chewing, pushing food along the masticatory surfaces of the molars back into the oral cavity itself , as
  8. Symptoms of each head disease individually
    This and the previous paragraph are, as it were, a conclusion from those basic provisions that we taught to judge the state of the head. The [listed] signs should be remembered and then there will be no need to repeat them in each paragraph, where we talk about diseases of the head region. If we are in a paragraph and return [to this], then only to help understand how they are applied
  9. Diseases of the head, mainly affecting the ability to feel and think
    Hibernation and sleep Hibernation is called excessive and heavy sleep, but not every excessive and heavy sleep, but one that is heavy in both duration and quality. It lasts longer than [usual] and in quality is stronger, so it is difficult to wake up from it, even if [a person] is awakened. Sleep is natural in duration and in quality, or heavy or [hibernating]. Speaking
  10. HORSE BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES
    HORSE BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES
  11. Examination of the horse's exterior
    When studying the exterior of a horse, it is important to evaluate the development of individual body parts, or articles. The nomenclature of articles often coincides with the anatomical designation of parts of the horse's body. Therefore, a veterinary medicine doctor who has studied the anatomy and morphology of a horse will easily learn the name of individual parts of the body or articles (Fig. 1). When studying horse articles, it is important to know their name, location
  12. Acquired valvular heart disease. Mitral heart diseases (codes 105; 134.0; 134.2)
    The modern nomenclature of acquired heart defects involves the allocation of insufficiency, stenosis, or their combinations of mitral, aortic, tricuspid valve and pulmonary valve. If the patient has one valvular defect, it is necessary to talk about simple, with two defects of one valve - about a combined defect. For example, joint mitral heart disease is stenosis of the left
  13. Disadvantages of standard note taking
    There are four main drawbacks to the standard system of abstracts that are now adopted. 1. Keywords get lost. Important ideas get expressed through keywords — usually nouns or verbs that provide our thinking with the necessary associations when we read or listen to something. In traditional synopses, keywords are often found on different pages and
  14. The disadvantages of artificial feeding
    Danger of infection (contamination) Baby food is often infected with bacteria, especially if the mother uses a bottle for feeding. This can be hazardous to the baby's health long before the milk smells sour. Bottles are difficult to wash, they should be boiled after each feeding. In baby food, bacteria develop very quickly, especially if a bottle
  15. Diseases associated with a lack of vitamins and minerals
    Hypovitaminosis A (A hypovitaminosis) occurs when there is a lack of vitamin A in the body (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), is clinically manifested by stunted growth, development, decreased natural resistance and local immune defense, increased flaking of the epidermis and dermatitis, metaplasia and keratinization of the mucous membrane epithelium and glands. More often the disease is recorded in
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