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Disadvantages, defects and diseases of the horse's head

The horse's head is the first to assess the exterior and is characterized by the size, shape, profile and ratio of the frontal and frontal parts. The size of the head is connected with the peculiarities of the constitution and the development of the backbone; its shape is an indicator of breed;

The size of a horse's head is large, medium and small; in shape - rough, tender; profile - straight, concave (pike) and convex or hook-nosed.

On the horse's head, inspect the eyes, ears, nostrils, lips, teeth and oral cavity, the base and the back of the head.

The eyes of the horse must be clean and clear, and this indicates a state of vision. Rapidly allyn horses have large, open eyes, sometimes rolling out, moving; in draft animals, more closed with fleshy eyelids and sedentary. Different size and irregular shape of the eyes, a spot on the cornea, clouding of the lens, astigmatism, glaucoma, intermittent blindness belong to defects and defects of vision.
With poor eyesight, the horses put their ears asymmetrically (spin their ears), lift their legs high, stumble, are fearful. The immobility of the pupil (dark water) on the change of illumination is found in blind horses. Opacification of the lens and spots on the cornea indicates eye disease.

The most widespread defects, defects and some diseases when viewed from a horse's head are shown in Table 1.





Table 1

Some disadvantages, defects and diseases possible on the horse's head

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Disadvantages, defects and diseases of the horse's head

  1. Defects, damages and defects of hoofs of a horse
    The shape and strength of the hoofed horn depends on the breed, type of constitution, gender, age and conditions of detention. In heavy trailers, hoofs are large with a slightly concave base and a softer, brittle horn; the riding horses have a smaller hoof, a concave sole and a denser and more resilient horn. In horses due to poor hoof care, improper foot placement, poor horn quality, with severe
  2. Vices and defects of the exterior of horses, reducing their use and breeding value
    When assessing the exterior, horses often notice the uneven development of individual articles of the horse in an undesirable direction. Exterior defects and shortcomings reduce performance, reproductive qualities, breeding value and the cost of a horse. The flaws and shortcomings of the articles of the horse are revealed when examining and evaluating the head, torso, front and hind limbs. Deviations (defects) from
  3. Vices and shortcomings of articles exterior
    For breeding under industrial technology, constitutionally strong, proportionally folded, healthy animals are suitable, with no obvious signs of defects in the structure of individual articles. The following defects reduce the tribal value of animals: an incorrect bite (shortening of one of the jaws), pug-shapedness (formed when the angle between the frontal and nasal bones approaches a straight line),
  4. BLOOD VESSELS AND SUBDERRAL STRUCTURES OF THE HORSE HEAD
    The next ten topics are devoted exclusively to the head, partly because of its complexity, but also because of the likelihood of involvement in the pathological process (laryngitis, sinusitis) and age determination (teeth). The first set of diagrams shows the surface of the head (33.1) along with the corresponding depiction of the subcutaneous structures (33.2) after removal of the skin. The skin on the face, as well as on the medial surface
  5. DEEP STRUCTURES AND CAVITY HEADS OF THE HORSE
    The following figures are a preliminary review of some head cavities. The head (34.2) and the skull (34. 1) were cut in the sagittal plane slightly to the side of the median plane, and the head was also cut across the face approximately at the level of the second molars (34.4). The last figure shows the position of the main cavities of the head, projected on the image
  6. SURFACE ANATOMY OF THE HEAD AND NECK OF THE HORSE
    In the following figures, an attempt is made to portray most of the structures of the head and neck, which are connected to the surface with the help of palpation or visualization in a projection on the surface. {foto198} Figure 44.1. Superficial anatomy of the head and neck, front view. Bones, joints and ligaments: 1. Nasal process of incisal bone. 2. Nosoreztsovaya cutting. 3. The tip of the nose. 4. Record
  7. CHEWNESS MUSCLES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRILATERAL NERVE ON THE HORSE HEAD
    Jaws and chewing muscles are the main components that give the head shape and shape. The muscles of the lips and cheeks (36.1) are components of the facial muscles that control the lips (circular muscle of the mouth) and affect the wall of the oral vestibule (cheek muscles), and are also used during chewing, pushing food along the chewing surfaces of the molar teeth back into the oral cavity itself , as
  8. Signs of each head disease separately
    This and the previous paragraph are, as it were, a conclusion from the main points that we taught for judging the state of the head. [Listed] signs should be remembered and then there will be no need to repeat them in every paragraph where we talk about diseases of the head area. If we are in a paragraph and come back [to this], it is only to help understand how
  9. Diseases of the head, mainly affecting the ability to feel and think
    Hibernation and sleep Hibernation refers to excessive and heavy sleep, but not every excessive and hard sleep, but one that is heavy both in duration and quality. It lasts longer [normal] and is stronger in quality, so it is difficult to wake up from it, even if [a person] is awakened. Sleep is natural in duration and in quality, either heavy or [shifting] into deep hibernation. Speaking
  10. HORSE EDUCATION AND REPRODUCTIVE DISEASE
    BREEDING HORSES AND REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES
  11. Examining the horse's exterior
    When studying the exterior of a horse, it is important to assess the development of individual parts of the body, or articles. The nomenclature of articles often coincides with the anatomical designation of parts of the body of a horse. Therefore, a veterinary medicine doctor who has studied the anatomy and morphology of a horse will easily learn the name of individual body parts or articles (Fig. 1). When studying the articles of the horse, it is important to know their name, location
  12. Acquired valvular heart disease. Mitral heart defects (cipher 105; 134.0; 134.2)
    The modern nomenclature of acquired heart defects involves the isolation of insufficiency, stenosis, or their combinations of the mitral, aortic, tricuspid valve and the pulmonary artery valve. If the patient has one valve defect, it is necessary to speak about a simple one, with two defects of one valve - about a combined defect. For example, co-chelated mitral heart disease is a stenosis of the left
  13. Disadvantages of standard note taking
    There are four major flaws in the current standard system of conducting abstracts. 1. Lost keywords Important ideas are expressed through keywords — usually nouns or verbs that provide the necessary associations to our thinking when we read or listen to something. In traditional summaries, keywords are often found on different pages and
  14. Artificial feeding disadvantages
    Danger of infection (contamination). Baby food is often contaminated with bacteria, especially if the mother uses a bottle for feeding. This can be dangerous to the health of the baby long before the milk has a sour smell. Bottles are difficult to wash, they should be boiled after each feeding. In baby food, bacteria develop very quickly, especially if the bottle
  15. Diseases associated with a lack of vitamins and minerals
    Hypovitaminosis A (A hypovitaminosis) occurs when there is a lack of vitamin A in the body (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), it is clinically manifested by growth retardation, development, reduction of natural resistance and local immune protection, increased peeling of the epidermis and dermatitis, metaplasia and keratinization of the mucous membranes and glands. More often the disease is registered in
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