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This is an infectious disease of young birds of many species, but ducklings and goslings are mainly affected. The causative agent of the disease is salmonella. A person is also susceptible to the disease.
The incubation period of the disease can last from 12 hours to 7 days. Most often, young animals get sick - at 2-6 weeks of age, the bird most weakened and affected by other diseases is most susceptible to the disease.
The disease proceeds in acute and subacute or chronic form.
In the acute manifestation of the disease, young animals behave sluggishly, are inactive, sits more, watery eyes are half-closed or closed, wings are down, feathers and fluff are tousled, gait is shaky, appetite is weak or absent. Thirst increased. As the disease develops, serous-mucous conjunctivitis appears, whose exudate sticks together the eyelids. Outflow from the nostrils. A sick bird develops diarrhea. The disease lasts for 1-4 days and often ends in death. Before death, goslings topple over on their backs.
In the subacute course of the disease, a sick bird often develops pneumonia; joint infection occurs in goslings. The duration of the subacute course of the disease reaches 6-10 days. Mortality reaches 40-50% in young waterfowl.
The chronic course of the disease is mostly recorded in young animals over 1.5 months of age after an acute or subacute period of the disease.
To the above symptoms are added exhaustion and shortness of breath of the bird. Paresis and paralysis are possible. The disease lasts 2-3 weeks. Suspicion of salmonellosis occurs with the appearance of watery foamy gruel-like stool, with lacrimation and growth retardation, nerve manifestations.
Diagnostics. Along with the characteristic clinical signs, the main role in making a diagnosis is played by bacteriological research in a laboratory setting. But at the same time, an infection of salmonella origin should be distinguished from colibacteriosis, coccidiosis, aspergillosis, pasteurellosis and other diseases.
Control measures and prevention. For the prevention of the disease, indoor and outdoor yards are mechanically cleaned and disinfected with 2% hot sodium hydroxide solution, 10% hot soda ash solution, 1% formaldehyde solution after 2 hours exposure, clarified with bleach solution containing 1 -2% active chlorine. For aerosol treatment, formalin is used at a rate of 15 ml per 1 m3 with an exposure of 3 hours, a 20% formaldehyde solution at a rate of 20 ml per 1 m3.
Quarantine restrictions are imposed on a dysfunctional paratyphoid farm. After suffering from salmonellosis, the bird has long remained a distributor of salmonella with feces and in eggs, therefore, diseased individuals are isolated from the herd. It is unacceptable to use goslings for hatching eggs from an ill bird. Hatching eggs and incubation chambers are disinfected with formaldehyde vapor. 30 ml of a 40% formalin solution, 30 ml of water and 20 g of potassium permanganate are taken per 1 m3 of the paraformalin chamber or incubation chamber.
Clinically healthy birds are prescribed furazolidone and furazidine in the first five days, antibiotics in the second, and nitrofuran preparations in the third. With a massive lesion, the whole bird is taken to a meat factory.
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- Paratyphoid A and B.
Lighter course. 2. Duration 2-3 weeks. 3. Acute development. 4. Catarrhal manifestations of the upper respiratory tract, hyperemia of the face. 5. The rash for 4-7 days, plentiful, polymorphic. 6. Leukocytosis. 7. Less frequent relapses, v the risk of developing a donkey. 8. Paratyphoid A - flu-like cm, paratyphoid B - diarrhea
- paratyphoid A and B (clinic, treatment)
Paratyphoid A and B are acute infectious diseases caused by salmonella and occurring as typhoid fever. Etiology: causative agent of paratyphoid A - Salmonella enterica subs. enterica serovar paratyphi A, paratyphoid B - Salmonella enterica subs. enterica serovar paratyphi B. Like typhoid bacteria, they contain O- and H-antigens, but do not have Vi-antigens. Epidemiology: source of infection - patients
- Typhoid fever, paratyphoid A and B
Training target: using diagnostic algorithms, be able to establish a diagnosis of typhoid fever, determine the clinical form, severity, complications and prescribe adequate treatment. Assignment for independent study of the topic. Using a textbook and lecture material to acquire the necessary basic knowledge, learn the following sections for practical training: 1) etiology;
- PARTICULAR FEATURES
PARATIF A: the incubation period does not exceed 14 days, in almost 80% of patients the onset is acute. Over 50% have a fever accompanied by chills. 3 times more often remitting temperature (range of more than 1 degree per day), status typhosus rarely occurs, rarely complications, more often relapses. Carriage in 13% of cases among patients. Each of the 4th is manifested by symptoms of gastroenteritis.
- ABDOMINAL TYPE AND PARTYTHIFES
Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are acute infectious diseases characterized by bacteremia, fever, intoxication, damage to the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine, rose-like skin rashes, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Clinical diagnosis The incubation period is from 1 to 3 weeks (on average 2 weeks). The onset is often gradual. Weakness, fatigue, adynamia.
- ABDOMINAL TYPE AND PARTYTHIFES
Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are called typhoid paratyphoid diseases. Typhoparathyphoid diseases are bacterial diseases, usually of an anthroponous nature, caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella with a fecal-oral transmission mechanism, with pronounced cyclicity, fever, bacteremia, symptoms of general intoxication and specific damage to the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine.
Salmonellosis (lat., Eng. - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid) - a large group of zoonotic diseases mainly of farm animals, characterized in young animals in the acute course of fever, septicemia, toxicosis and diarrhea, and in subacute and chronic - pneumonia and arthritis; in adult females, by abortion; in humans, it proceeds in the form of foodborne toxicoinfections (see color insert).
Salmonellosis of birds (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course of septicemia in young animals and latent infection in an adult bird. Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. Salmonella is widespread. Salmonella was first isolated from pig organs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
- . Paratyphoid
- Pathogenesis of typhoid fever and paratyphoid
In practice, the pathogenesis of typhoid and paratyphoid is identical. The causative agent enters through the mouth. Phases of pathogenesis: • the introduction phase includes the ingestion of a microbe in the mouth, where it is already possible to enter the lymphatic formations (because salmonella are tropic to the lymphatic system). There may be catarrhal inflammation in the tonsillar tissue, and then, at the height of the disease, there may be ulcerative necrotic