Licensed books on medicine
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In the treatment of animals, parenteral administration of liquid dosage forms into the body is widely used, that is, bypassing the digestive canal. For these purposes, injection needles, syringes, special devices, various devices are used, strictly observing the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. At the place chosen for the injection, the hair is cut off, the skin is cleaned with alcohol or twice moistened with an alcoholic solution of iodine or a solution of iodinol. Tools are boiled for at least 30 minutes in a 2% solution of baking soda, syringes and needles in distilled water, previously wrapped in gauze. Aqueous and oily solutions are administered sterile, at a temperature close to body temperature.
Before the introduction of medicinal solutions to the animal, wash and disinfect the hands. The syringe is filled with a medicinal solution, the needle is lifted up, and air bubbles are forced out of the syringe and the needle with a slight movement of the piston.
In large animals, the solutions are injected subcutaneously in the middle third of the neck, behind the scapula and in the area of the breast. Before administration, the syringe is fixed in the right hand; hold the cylinder firmly with the middle and ring fingers, take the needle with the little finger, and the piston rod with the index finger.
Then, with the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of the left hand, the skin fold is pulled and a needle is inserted into the formed recess at an angle of 45 °. After making sure that the needle is under the skin, a solution is injected by pressure on the syringe plunger. After that, the needle is removed, the injection site is disinfected and easily massaged.
Working animals should not be injected with drugs in the adjoining harness. Small animals are given injections on the right and left sides of the neck, on the chest wall, on the inner thigh and lower abdomen; pigs - near the base of the auricle, into the knee fold, the inner surface of the thigh and the lower surface of the abdominal wall; birds in the chest, nape and apex of the wing.
Under the skin, large amounts of the solution are injected slowly with a light massage of the injection site. Up to 200-300 ml of the drug from the Bobrov apparatus or the Janet syringe can be injected into one place.
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- Subcutaneous implants
Subcutaneous implants, like other parenteral contraceptives (injectable), in comparison with oral contraceptives, have common features along with common features: they exclude the effect of the primary passage through the liver, which causes various metabolic and hemodynamic disorders (lipid and protein metabolism, which coagulates hypertensive blood system
- Subcutaneous fat:
• degree of development, nature of distribution, thickness of the subcutaneous fat folds on the abdomen, chest, back, limbs, face; • the presence of edema and seals; • tissue turgor. Some idea of the quantity and distribution of the subcutaneous fat layer can be obtained by a general examination of the child, however, a final judgment on the state of the subcutaneous fat layer is made only after palpation. For
- Subcutaneous injection
Purpose To administer the drug subcutaneously. Indications As prescribed by the doctor. Contraindications Individual intolerance to the administered drug substance. Equipment 1. The syringe is sterile 1-2 ml. 2. Ampoules with a medicinal substance. 3. The tray is sterile. 4. Sterile needles for subcutaneous administration. 5. Sterile needles for a set of medicinal substances. 6. Sterile cotton balls. 7. Alcohol
- Features of the subcutaneous fat layer
The main function of subcutaneous fat is heat production, not associated with muscle contractions. With prolonged cooling, adipose tissue can completely disappear. With a nutritional deficiency, the subcutaneous fat layer becomes thinner. In the abdominal and chest cavities, retroperitoneal space, fat is almost absent in children. It is formed by 5-7 years. High levels of solid acids affect
- TRANSPARENT MUSCLES, NERVES AND HORSE BURSES
The skin is attached to the underlying parts by subcutaneous connective tissue containing elastic fibers and adipose tissue. This tissue layer is called fascia and forms the superficial and deep layers. Superficial fascia is often spongy, loose and well developed above the neck and trunk. On the limbs, it is thinner and more uneven, especially distal from the wrist and tarsal on
- Practical recommendations for the study of the subcutaneous fat layer.
First you need to get an idea and make a judgment about the amount and nature of the distribution of the subcutaneous fat layer. For this purpose, an examination of the maximum naked child. However, the final judgment on the development of the subcutaneous fat layer is made only after analysis of the percentile ratios of the harmony of length and body weight, as well as the thickness of the skin folds detected by palpation.
- SKIN AND SLEEPAGE CELL EXAMINATION TECHNIQUE
SURVEY ALGORITHM Fig. 1. Algorithm for examining the skin and subcutaneous fat. The method of skin research includes: interrogation, examination, palpation, determination of vascular fragility and dermographism (Fig. 1). A clinical study begins with a questionnaire, in which it can be established that the patient has pallor, yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes, various rashes, swelling, and also find out
- Subcutaneous implants as a method of contraception
Norplant ("Norplant") - manufacturer "Leiras Pharma-ceuticals", Finland. It is represented by flexible silastic capsules with a length of 3.4 cm and a diameter of 2.5 mm, each of which contains 35 mg of levonorgestrel. Norplant-2 - consists of 2 capsules 44 mm long and 2.4 mm in diameter, containing 35 mg of levonorgestrel. The mechanism of contraceptive action is based on the allocation of levonorgestrel capsule to the norplant
- BLOOD VESSELS AND SUBCUTANOUS HORSE HEAD STRUCTURES
The following ten topics are devoted exclusively to the head, partly because of its complexity, but also because of the likelihood of involvement in the pathological process (laryngitis, sinusitis) and age determination (teeth). The first selection of patterns shows the surface of the head (33.1) along with the corresponding image of the subcutaneous structures (33.2) after skin removal. The skin on the face, as well as on the medial surface
- Diseases of the sebaceous glands and subcutaneous tissue
Inflammation of the subcutaneous fat (panniculitis) is manifested in the form of single or multiple deep nodules on the lower and lateral parts of the chest. Nodules are filled with fluid, burst, resulting in the formation of painful ulcers filled with thick oily contents. Heal slowly, leaving constricting scars. For diagnosis, histological studies are performed. Reason
- Limited congenital defects of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
The etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. The disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, or may be the result of a mother having a viral infection during pregnancy, intoxication as a result of radiation therapy, as well as a failed abortion attempt and under the influence of other factors. Clinic. Defects in the skin or subcutaneous tissue
- RADICAL SUBCUTANEOUS MASTECTOMY WITH PRIMARY RECONSTRUCTION IN BREAST CANCER
Pak D.D., Rasskazova E.A. Research Institute named after P.A. Herzen, Moscow Objective: To improve the long-term results of treatment and quality of life of patients with breast cancer (breast cancer) after radical subcutaneous mastectomy with simultaneous reconstruction. Materials and methods: Radical subcutaneous mastectomy involves the preservation of the skin of the mammary gland, the nipple-areolar complex,
- SKIN AND LEATHER CELL IN CHILDREN. Semiotics of defeats.
SKIN AND LEATHER CELL IN CHILDREN. SEMIOTICS
- Diseases of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, umbilical cord and umbilical wounds
Diseases of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, umbilical cord and umbilical cord
- Abstract. Methods of drug administration, 2010
Subcutaneous administration Intramuscular administration Intravenous administration Intraosseous administration Intraperitoneal administration Intrathoracic and intrapulmonary methods of drug administration Autohemotherapy Bloodletting Intracheal administration Scarring and drug administration
- Routes of administration of drugs
The choice of the route of administration of drugs depends on the severity of the patient’s condition, the necessary duration of their continuous administration, the nature of the disease, the age of the patient and the manual capabilities of medical personnel. According to the speed of reaching a peak concentration of drugs in the bloodstream, the following routes of drug administration are distinguished: ¦ intra-arterial; ¦ intravenous; ¦ intratracheal; ¦ sublingual (in
- Administration Methods
AEROSOL INHALATION Endobronchial administration usually results in a high local concentration of the drug without systemic side effects. Examples are bronchodilator P-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and pentamidine. However, some inhaled solutions reaching the lung parenchyma are quickly absorbed by the large surface of the capillary bed (e.g.
- Intratracheal administration
In clinical practice for lung diseases, medicinal substances are administered intratracheally using a probe. Before administration, the probe is disinfected and lubricated with petroleum jelly. For large animals, the probe is inserted through the nasal cavity to the pharynx and in between the swallowing movements it is further advanced. With the correct insertion of the probe into the trachea, the animal develops a cough that soon disappears. To
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main tool for statistical development of information on public health and the activities of health facilities. It provides methodological unity and comparability of the results of a study of the incidence of the population, causes of death, and reasons for contacting medical institutions, both within the country and between countries.