Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Pullorosis (pullorosis, typhus avium, typhoid, white bacillary diarrhea) is an acute infectious disease of chickens and poults up to 2 weeks of age and adult birds. It is characterized by lesions of the gastrointestinal tract in young, and in adult birds, it is asymptomatic and is accompanied by deformation and degeneration of the ovarian follicles.
Etiology. The causative agent of pullorosis is Gram-negative, immobile, spores and capsules that do not form Sal bacteria. pullorum - gallinarum.
The pathogen persists in the litter for more than 100 days, in the water for more than 200 days, in the soil for 14 months. Heating to 60 ° C neutralizes the pathogen in 30 minutes, boiling in 1 minute.
Epizootology. Chickens and turkey poults suffer from pullorosis, usually in the first days of life, but they can also get sick at 3-4 weeks of age.
The source of the pathogen is chickens. They secrete the pathogen with an egg, and with intestinal lesions with droppings. Another important source of infection is chickens that are still infected in the egg. Infection occurs mainly through alimentary and transovarial routes, it can be aerogenic, and transmission of the pathogen to chickens by sick roosters can occur during mating.
Typhoid epizootics are usually observed among adult birds, more often among egg-laying beginners, but both old and young birds can be sick. Mortality in pullorosis is 50-70%.
Pathogenesis. The pathogen, once in the body is localized on the mucous membrane of the blind processes causing inflammatory and dystrophic changes. Later, penetrating into the circulatory system, affects the liver, spleen, causing the formation of foci of necrosis.
Symptoms and course. The incubation period in chickens lasts 1-6 days, in an adult bird, 4-5 days. In chickens infected during fetal development, signs of the disease appear on the first day of hatching (diarrhea appears). If the chickens are infected in an incubator or house, they will fall ill on the 3-5th day after hatching. In young animals, acute, subacute and chronic currents of pullorosis are distinguished, and in adult birds, chronic and asymptomatic.
In the acute course, sick chickens eat poorly the food, sluggish, head retracted, wings lowered. Body temperature rises to 43-440 ° C, and profuse diarrhea appears. The stool is initially mushy, viscous, then becomes liquid, frothy, chalky.
Sometimes feces yellowish and even bloody. The fluff around the cloaca is polluted with feces and glued together; when the feces dry, the anus closes, making it difficult to excrete the droppings. It causes intoxication, further death of chickens. Chickens usually die within 2-3 days.
Subacute and chronic disease is more common in chickens of 20 days of age. In young pullets and adult chickens, the disease occurs chronically for months and even years.
Pathological changes. At necropsy, dead chickens reveal an unresolved yolk sac, accumulation of fecal masses in the caecum and cloaca, foci of necrosis in the liver, myocardium and lungs, and catarrhal enteritis. In adult chickens, inflammation of the ovary and deformity of the yolk follicles are detected.
Diagnosis. For the lifetime diagnosis of chronic pullorosis in adult birds, the CCRA and CCRNA are used. The diagnosis is considered established when the pathogen is isolated from the patmaterial and its identification is carried out.
Pullorosis should be differentiated from salmonellosis, escherichiosis, pasteurellosis, aspergillosis, eymerioz.
Treatment. For treatment, antibacterial drugs are used after a preliminary determination of the pathogen sensitivity to them.
Prevention and control measures. In prosperous farms, at least 1 time per month, bacteriological research is carried out for the presence of the pathogen pullorosis 30 frozen embryos. Adult breeding poultry and all young stock of breeding stock are subjected to serological research in the following terms. When isolating a seropositive bird, it is removed from the herd.
When establishing the diagnosis, the poultry farm is declared unfavorable and imposes restrictions, followed by a ban on the export of eggs from a seropositive bird, as well as the incubation of eggs from chickens from disadvantaged poultry houses.
When a positively reacting young stock is detected, the entire bird of an unfavorable house is raised to meat condition and is given for slaughter.
Restrictions on the farm are removed after organizational, economic, veterinary, sanitary and antiepizootic measures to eliminate pullorosis, the absence of clinical and pathological signs in birds and the negative results of the buccal investigation (frozen embryos, cadavers).
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
- Course work. Pulloz at chickens and a typhus at hens., 2008
Content. 1. Introduction. 2. Systematics. 3. Biological properties Morphological Cultural Biochemical Resistance Toxic formation Antigenic structure Pathogenicity. 4. Diagnostics. 5. Specific prevention and immunity. 6. Specific therapy. 7. Conclusion. 8. List
Pullorosis (Latin - Pullorosis; English - Pullorum disease; pullorosis-typhoid, bird typhoid, white bacillary diarrhea, white diarrhea) is a disease of young chickens, manifested in adult birds with ovarian inflammation, yolk peritonitis or asymptomatic. Historical background, distribution, degree of danger and damage. Pullorosis is one of the first diseases that became known in
This is an infectious septic disease of chickens during the first days of life. In adult chickens, it occurs as a hidden infection. They are the main carriers of the disease - bacilli carriers. Pullorosis causative agent is a wand from the group if. In the external environment, it stands out with feces and eggs. In the soil, bacteria persist for up to a year, in water - 7-8 months, in litter - up to four months.
- Typhoid fever.
Typhoid fever is an acute intestinal infectious disease caused by S. typhi abdominalis. The causative agent is the main representative of a large genus (2500 serotypes) of Salmonella - flagellated gram-negative microbes that cause a disease called salmonellosis. Typhoid fever is the most dangerous form of salmonellosis, therefore it is isolated into an independent form. This is anthroponosis, the source is
- EPIDEMIC RETURN TYPH
Peter L. Perine (Peter L. Ferine) Definition. Epidemic recurrent typhoid fever is an acute infection characterized by repeated cycles of rising body temperature, which are separated from each other by asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. It is called spirochetes of the genus Borrelia and is represented by two epidemiological species - a lice-transmitted disease and a disease transmitted by
- Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease caused by typhoid sticks. Characteristic features are the primary lesion of the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine, high fever, severe intoxication and bacteremia. Epidemiology. Sick mostly people under the age of 20 years. Transmission of the pathogen is carried out by contact-household, water, food, and
Typhus? an infectious disease characterized by cyclical course, fever, severe intoxication, rash, damage to the vascular and central nervous systems. Currently registered in developing countries, in Europe - rarely. The causative agent - Provachek's rickettsia - a motionless gram-negative intracellular parasite. Rickettsiae long persist in the surrounding
- Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease that is caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella and is characterized by lesions of the intestinal lymphatic system. The disease occurs with severe intoxication, enlarged liver and spleen and a rash. In the environment, typhoid paratyphoid bacteria are relatively resistant. In water and soil, they can last from several days to several months.
- Syrup typhoid tick
Tick-borne typhus (North Asian rickettsiosis) is an acute infectious disease with a benign course, characterized by the presence of primary affect, fever and skin rashes. Clinical diagnosis The incubation period is 4-9 days. The start is hot. Fever, headache, insomnia. Inflammatory reaction at the site of tick bite and regional lymphadenitis. Polymorphic
- Epidemic typhus (thyphus exanthematicus).
It belongs to anthroponotic rickettsiosis, is transmitted by lice, is characterized by generalized thrombovasculitis of small vessels and is manifested by severe intoxication, meningoencephalitis, hepatosplenomegaly and polymorphic roseolous petechial skin rash (exanthema). The disease is more common between the ages of 20 and 40 years. There is some predominance of men compared with women.
- Typhus and paratypes
Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are called typhoid paratyphoid diseases. Typhoid paratyphoid diseases are bacterial diseases, as a rule, of an anthroponotic nature, caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella with a fecal-oral transmission mechanism, with clearly pronounced cyclicity, fever, bacteremia, symptoms of general intoxication and a specific lesion of the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine.
- Typhus and paratypes
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are acute infectious diseases characterized by bacteremia, fever, intoxication, damage to the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine, roseolous eruptions on the skin, enlarged liver and spleen. Clinical diagnosis The incubation period is from 1 to 3 weeks (on average 2 weeks). The beginning is more often gradual. Weakness, fatigue, weakness.
- typhus: pathogenesis, clinic, laboratory diagnostics
Epidemic typhus (lousy typhus, military typhus) is an acute infectious disease characterized by cyclical course, fever, roseolous petechial exanthema, lesion of the nervous and cardiovascular system, the possibility of co-storage of rickettsia in the body of convalescent for many years. Etiology: R. prowazekii (available in all countries of the world) R. canada (North America only) - Gr-organisms.
- Typhoid fever.
The causative agent is Salmonella typhi. The transmission path is fec-op. The source of infection is sick, bacillicarrier. Pathogenesis. In the small intestine, Salmonella affects Peyer's patches and solitary follicles; there are 4 stages, each of which lasts about a week: 1) cerebral swelling of lymph TC, 2) necrotization of lymph TC, 3) rejection of necrotic ulcers, 4) stage of clean ulcers, 5) recovery of convalescence . Ulcers