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Disorder of the neuroendocrine regulation of sexual function in manufacturing bulls
Etiology. Technological stress caused by injections of biologically active drugs (allergens, vaccines) and the formation of specific immunity, pain effects (puncture of the jugular vein, fixation of animals when treating hoofs, etc.), as well as changing personnel, technological methods, movements of animals, has a favorable prognosis . However, in the first 5-7 days after these or other technological measures, the sexual activity of producers decreases by 20-25%, the volume of ejaculate decreases by 10-30%.
Climatic stress resulting from adverse effects on the animal’s body, most often high ambient temperatures and excessive sunlight (May-June-July-August), leads to inhibition of the thyroid-hypothalamic-gonadol system. Although the organism of farm animals meets with these stress factors repeatedly and has evolutionarily fixed adaptation mechanisms, the negative effect of these factors is accompanied by a weakening of the sexual reflexes and spermogenesis, a decrease in the amount of sperm produced by 8-10%, sperm concentration in the ejaculate and their activity by 15-18% .
The operational stress resulting from excessive sexual use by the manufacturer entails a weakening of the sexual reflexes, a decrease in the volume of ejaculate and a deterioration in the quality of sperm (oligospermia). An early sign of increased sexual activity is an increase in the ejaculate of immature forms of sperm with a cytoplasmic droplet on the neck, body and tail.
Symptoms and course. Violation of neurohumoral regulation can manifest itself in a violation of sexual reflexes (locomotor, erection, embracing, cumulative, ejaculation) in the form of their weakening, inhibition or distortion. External inhibition or inhibition of negative induction occurs when an outside stimulus of an accidental stimulus (an unexpected sound, a new smell, a change in light and the place of sperm production, the presence of unauthorized persons) is affected, which causes an indicative reflex and negative induction on the sexual reflexes.
Extreme inhibition is observed in very excitable, long-used manufacturers. An excessive manifestation of the locomotory reflex and a very strong transboundary irritation occur, leading to inhibition or weakening of the erection reflexes, intercourse and ejaculation.
Extinguishing inhibition is produced in bulls when they are kept together with the animals on which the bull makes cages, and in the absence of reinforcement of the conditioned reflex (excitation by sight and smell) with unconditional (coating). There is a reluctance to cage on those animals with which they are kept in neighboring stalls.
Sleep-inhibitory condition occurs in manufacturers with prolonged and frequent sperm in a monotonous situation (on the same animal and in one place). In this condition, the bulls stand for a long time near the animal, on which they take sperm, weakly show sexual reflexes, secrete sperm in small quantities and of poor quality.
Differentiation (conditional) inhibition develops with repeated violation of the rules of preparation and use of an artificial vagina (low temperature, low pressure, poor lubrication, rough insertion of the penis to the vagina) and occurs, as a rule, in the presence of a technician who performs the work unqualified. Manifested by a lack of ejaculation reflex.
Inhibition of the retarded reflex occurs after a long exposure of the animal in the arena or near the female in a state of sexual arousal, it is associated with a delay in obtaining sperm or mating.
The main form of the perversion of sexual reflexes is onanism. This vicious conditioned reflex is more often observed in young bulls and can be firmly fixed with prolonged abstinence from the beginning of their breeding.
In adult bulls, onanism is observed in animals of unrestrained type of nervous activity, with their irregular use, as well as with mechanical stimulation of the terminal part of the penis and the walls of the preputial sac with various pathological processes. Consolidation of sexual perversion in animals leads to a decrease in sexual activity and sperm quality.
Treatment. When weakening or inhibition of sexual reflexes associated with the layering of vicious conditioned reflexes, use the following methods to restore the fertility of producers:
- when braking a negative induction while receiving sperm, it is necessary to observe silence, to avoid pulling out, rough handling of the manufacturer, to maintain a uniform environment in the arena. Sexual arousal in bulls can be enhanced by keeping them near the animal in the arena before landing for 5 minutes;
- during extinctive braking and the producer's sleep-brake state, it is necessary to keep separate from animals for which sperm is obtained, change these animals and places of sperm production, combine cages with “idle” drives to the arena, provide regular active exercise and swimming under the shower, carry out daily 5-minute massage of the testes.
Of the drugs daily (until sexual activity occurs), 3-6 g of caffeine (or its salt) is administered orally as a 1% aqueous solution. The drug is used not more than 1 month and with mandatory monitoring of the state of the cardiac activity of the producers. To activate the ejaculation reflex and increase the volume of the ejaculate, you can use intravenous administration of 6 IU of oxytocin for 1-2 minutes before taking sperm or subcutaneous injections of proserin in a dose of 0.04-0.05 g in 1% aqueous solution or carbacholine in a dose of 0.002- 0.003 g in 0.1% aqueous solution for 25-40 minutes before receiving sperm. The most effective influence on sexual activity and improving the quality of sperm production is 2-3 times the introduction of purified gonadotropin FFA in a dose of 4 IU / kg with an interval of 2-3 weeks;
- in case of differentiating (conditional) inhibition, one should strictly observe the rules for preparing an artificial vagina and the technology for producing sperm. It is also recommended to replace the equipment and place of receipt of sperm;
- in case of extreme limiting, premature drive of producers to the arena and delay in obtaining sperm are not recommended. Animals require active exercise, as well as their use in light work. It is advisable to use sedatives (sodium bromide, Phenibut) in the form of a 3% aqueous solution in doses of 0.4-2.8 l, Phenibut - daily by mouth for 20-30 days at a dose of 0.5-1 mg / kg.
With the weakening of the sexual reflexes and the deterioration of sperm quality due to over-exploitation, they change the mode of sexual use, reduce the number of nests, and provide the producers with proper feeding and daily exercise. The complex of vitamin and microelement preparations is additionally introduced into the diet within 15-20 days.
To stimulate the sexual function of manufacturers with climatic impotence, they use bathing under the shower, massage of the testes, caffeine, oxytocin, neurotropic drugs, gonadotropin FFA, and also prescribe vitamins and salts of trace elements.
In the system to combat the perversion of sexual reflexes (onanism), the development of negative conditioned reflexes in anonical act by means of mechanical (shocks), physical (souls) and electrical stimuli takes a significant place. It is recommended to administer orally 3% sodium bromide solution in doses of 0.4-2.8 l for 15-30 days. It is also necessary to do intrapelvic conduction anesthesia, which plays the role of a pathogenetic factor that inhibits impulses from the external genitalia to the spinal center of erection. Mandatory regular active exercise and the use of bulls in light work.
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Disorder of the neuroendocrine regulation of sexual function in manufacturing bulls
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