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Maternity paresis (coma puerperalis)
Acute, sudden, severe nervous disease that manifests itself as a paralysis-like state of the pharynx, tongue, bowel, and limbs. The disease is more often recorded in cows, less often in sheep and goats, and very rarely in pigs.
The etiology of postpartum paresis is still an unresolved issue, the specific causes of the disease are not fully understood. According to the theory of hypoglycemia, postpartum paresis is associated with a decrease in sugar in the blood of the woman due to the enhanced function of the pancreas, which produces an increased amount of insulin.
Some researchers believe that postpartum paresis occurs as a result of acute hypocalcemia, manifested by a decrease in blood calcium with an increase in phosphorus and magnesium. Hypocalcemia results from an increased excretion of calcium salts in milk or inhibition of the function of the parathyroid glands. There is reason to believe that in the etiology of the disease, the nervous system is over-stressed and, in particular, analyzers of the cerebral cortex to impulses from the baro- and chemoreceptors of the sexual apparatus and other internal organs directly or indirectly involved in the labor act. As a rule, postpartum paresis develops in high-yielding cows aged 5–8 years, above average fatness when feeding a large amount of protein feed. Cows get sick after a light, fast-flowing birth. Contributes to the development of postpartum paresis stall content. In heifers, as a rule, postpartum paresis is not noted. The disease can recur and occur in daughters of highly productive cows.
Symptoms and course. Postpartum paresis in cows is usually recorded in the first three days after delivery, sometimes it may develop in the course of several weeks or months after calving and very rarely in pregnant animals or during delivery. The disease begins with general depression or transient arousal. No appetite, chewing gum disappears. The movements of the animal are uncertain, there is a general trembling or twitching of the muscles of the croup and limbs. The cow lies with the extremities bent under itself, with the expanded pupils, the half-closed eyes, the head thrown back aside. Tactile and painful skin sensitivity is dulled, the body temperature drops to 35-36 ° C, the whole body of the animal is cold, especially the bases of the horns and limbs. The neck is S-shaped and curved. Tearing is observed, and then the cornea dries out and becomes cloudy, the pulse becomes weak, breathing is shallow, slow, then wheezing appears, the act of swallowing is broken. Drooling and falling out of the tongue may occur. Peristalsis is absent, defecation and urination cease. In the rectum, dry, dense stool is found, the bladder is full.
In a weakly expressed form (atypical form) in an animal, depression and anorexia are noted. Body temperature in the normal range or slightly reduced (37-37.5 ° C). A characteristic S-shaped neck curvature is observed.
In sheep and goats, postpartum paresis occurs in the first 1-3 days after birth and proceeds with the same signs as in cows.
In pigs, postpartum paresis is observed on the 2–4th day after farrowing.
The general condition of the animals is depressed, the appetite is poor, there are no tactile signs of pain. Note paralysis of the limbs. Body temperature drops to 37-37.5 ° C. The sow lies motionless on its side.
Prognosis without timely treatment is unfavorable. With timely treatment, 90% of patients recover. In the absence of medical care, the animal dies within 1-3 days from tympania or aspiration bronchopneumonia.
Treatment. In the mammary gland with the help of the apparatus Evers pumped air. Before air injection, the cow is given a back-lateral position, milk is dispensed, the tops of the nipples are treated with a swab moistened with a 70% alcohol solution. Air is pumped into each quarter gradually until a tympanic sound appears and the skin folds are completely smoothed; gauze bandages are applied to the nipples and a light udder massage is performed to evenly distribute the air. The limbs, croup and lower back of the cow are crushed with a bundle of straw or hay and covered with a blanket. 20-30 ml of a 20% caffeine solution are injected subcutaneously.
With aerotherapy, recovery of the cow usually occurs in the first 2-3 hours, and sometimes even earlier. Signs of recovery are the appearance of shivering of all muscles, an increase in temperature and the appearance of peristalsis. Then the cow pulls out his neck, limbs, closes his eyes and gets up.
In the absence of a therapeutic effect, re-injection of air is carried out after 6-8 hours. Dressings for nipples are usually removed 30 minutes after the procedure. In addition to aerotherapy, with postpartum paresis of cows, the introduction of fresh milk into all quarters of the udder (3-4 l) gives good results; intravenous 20% glucose solution in a dose of 200-300 ml and 100-150 ml of 10% calcium chloride solution.
With the development of tympania, a scar is punctured with a trocar or a needle and 20-40 ml of 40% formalin solution or 300-400 ml of 5% alcoholic solution of ichthyol is injected into its cavity. Milking a cow is recommended 1-2 hours after getting up, and you cannot squeeze the air out of the udder.
In sheep and goats, aerotherapy is used to treat postpartum paresis. In pigs with maternity paresis, the croup and limbs are rubbed with a bundle of straw or cloth, massaging the area of the mammary glands, rubbing camphor oil into them. Inside appoint laxatives (calomel 1 g, castor oil 100 g). A warm sugar solution is injected into the rectum (100 g of sugar per 700–8 00 ml of water).
Prevention. Pregnant animals provide complete feed. Two weeks before delivery, silage is excluded from the diet and the amount of concentrated feed is reduced. During the stall period animals are provided with daily walks in the fresh air. High-yield cows, as well as previously experienced postpartum paresis, and their daughters, 7–10 days before calving, vitamin Dz is administered twice at a dose of 3 million IU and 4 million IU per day of calving. When obstetric medical examination of dry cows for 7-10 days before calving determine the biochemical status of the body, especially the content in serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and sugar. If necessary, mineral additives and sugar are introduced into the diet of cows.
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Maternity paresis (coma puerperalis)
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