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Maternity paresis (coma puerperalis)
Acute, sudden, severe neural disease, manifested by a paralytic state of the pharynx, tongue, intestines, and limbs. The disease is more often recorded in cows, less often in sheep and goats, and very rarely in pigs.
The etiology of postpartum paresis is an unresolved issue; the specific causes of the disease have not been fully elucidated. According to the theory of hypoglycemia, postpartum paresis is associated with a decrease in the blood sugar of the woman in labor due to increased pancreatic function, which produces an increased amount of insulin.
Some researchers believe that postpartum paresis occurs as a result of acute hypocalcemia, manifested by a decrease in calcium in the blood against a background of increased phosphorus and magnesium. Hypocalcemia occurs as a result of increased excretion of calcium salts with milk or inhibition of the function of the parathyroid glands. There is reason to believe that overstrain of the nervous system and, in particular, analyzers of the cerebral cortex to impulses coming from the baro- and chemoreceptors of the genital apparatus and other internal organs directly or indirectly involved in the birth act is of great importance in the etiology of the disease. As a rule, postpartum paresis develops in highly productive cows at the age of 5–8 years, of overweight condition when feeding a large amount of protein feed. Cows become ill after a light, quick birth. The stall content predisposes to the development of postpartum paresis. In heifers, as a rule, postpartum paresis is not noted. The disease can recur and occur in daughters of highly productive cows.
Symptoms and course. Postpartum paresis in cows is usually recorded in the first three days after birth, sometimes it can develop several weeks or months after calving, and very rarely in pregnant animals or during childbirth. The disease begins with general depression or short-term agitation. There is no appetite, chewing gum disappears. The movements of the animal are uncertain, there is a general tremor or twitching of the muscles of the croup and limbs. The cow lies with bent limbs, with dilated pupils, half-closed eyes, head thrown back to the side. Tactile and painful skin sensitivity is dulled, body temperature drops to 35-36 ° C, the whole body of the animal is cold, especially the base of the horns and limbs. The neck is S-shaped. Tearing is noted, and then the cornea dries up and becomes cloudy, the pulse becomes weak, breathing is shallow, slow, then wheezing appears, the act of swallowing is disturbed. Salivation and loss of tongue may be observed. Peristalsis is absent, bowel movements and urination cease. In the rectum, dry, dense feces are found, the bladder is full.
With a mild form (atypical form) in the animal, depression, lack of appetite are noted. Body temperature is within normal limits or slightly decreases (37-37.5 ° C). Observe a characteristic S-shaped curvature of the neck.
In sheep and goats, postpartum paresis occurs in the first 1-3 days after birth and proceeds with the same symptoms as in cows.
In pigs, postpartum paresis is observed on the 2nd-4th day after farrowing.
The general condition of the animals is depressed, the appetite is poor, there are no pain tactile signs. Limb paralysis is noted. Body temperature drops to 37-37.5 ° C. The sow lies on its side motionless.
The prognosis without timely treatment is unfavorable. With timely treatment, 90% of patients recover. In the absence of medical care, the animal dies within 1-3 days from tympanum or aspiration bronchopneumonia.
Treatment. Air is pumped into the mammary gland using the Evers apparatus. Before air is injected, the cow is placed in a dorsal lateral position, milk is dispensed, the tops of the nipples are treated with a swab moistened with a 70% alcohol solution. Air is pumped into each quarter gradually until a tympanic sound appears and the skin folds are completely smoothed out; Gauze dressings are applied to the nipples and a light massage of the udder is performed to evenly distribute the air. The limbs, croup and lower back of the cow are rubbed with a plait of straw or hay and covered with a blanket. 20-30 ml of a 20% caffeine solution are injected subcutaneously.
With aerotherapy, cow recovery usually occurs in the first 2–3 hours, and sometimes earlier. Signs of recovery are the appearance of trembling throughout the muscles, fever and the appearance of peristalsis. Then the cow extends its neck, limbs, closes its eyes and stands up.
In the absence of a therapeutic effect, repeated blowing of air is carried out after 6-8 hours. Bandages from the nipples are usually removed 30 minutes after the procedure. In addition to aerotherapy, with postpartum paresis of cows, the introduction of fresh milk in all quarters of the udder (3-4 l) gives good results; intravenously 20% glucose solution in a dose of 200-300 ml and 100-150 ml of a 10% solution of calcium chloride.
With the development of tympanum, a scar is pierced with a trocar or needle and 20-40 ml of a 40% formalin solution or 300-400 ml of a 5% alcohol solution of ichthyol are injected into its cavity. Milking a cow is recommended 1-2 hours after getting up, while you can not squeeze the air from the udder.
In sheep and goats, aerotherapy is used to treat postpartum paresis. In pigs with puerperal paresis, cereals and limbs are rubbed with a straw or cloth, and the area of the mammary glands is massaged by rubbing camphor oil in them. Inside appoint laxatives (calomel 1 g, castor oil 100 g). A warm sugar solution (100 g sugar per 700-8 00 ml of water) is injected into the rectum.
Prevention Pregnant animals provide complete feed. Two weeks before giving birth, silage is excluded from the diet and the amount of concentrated feed is reduced. During the stall period, animals are given daily walks in the fresh air. Highly productive cows, as well as those who had previously had postpartum paresis and their daughters, are given vitamin D2 twice at a dose of 3 million IE and 4 million IE per day of calving 7-10 days before calving. During obstetric medical examination of dry cows 7-10 days before calving, the biochemical status of the body is determined, especially the content of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus and sugar in serum. If necessary, mineral additives and sugar are added to the diet of cows.
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Maternity paresis (coma puerperalis)
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