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Salmonellosis is an acute contagious disease that affects mainly puppies of weaned age.
Etiology. The genus Salmonella includes 65 groups and is widespread in nature. Salmonella parasitizes in the body of domestic as well as wild animals, including birds, fish, reptiles. Many species are highly pathogenic and dangerous to humans. In dogs, Salm is more often secreted. cholerae suis, S. enteritidis, and in bacterial carriers - S. tuphimurium.
Resistance Salmonella are quite resistant to low and high temperatures. In ice, they persist for several months; 3.5 months remain viable on wooden surfaces, up to 3 months in contaminated with feces and urine of sick soil, up to a year in manure, several weeks in water, 1-3 months in meat, bread, at room temperature - 2-3 months. When heated to 60-70 ° C, salmonella die within an hour. For a longer time, they remain viable in large pieces of meat; for example, in a piece weighing 400 g, they survived cooking for 2.5 hours. Salting and smoking of products have a weak effect on salmonella.
Epizootology. Dogs usually get sick on farms that are unsuccessful for salmonellosis of farm animals at any time of the year. It was noted that puppies often get sick at the age of 1 to 6 months. Their illness proceeds with well-defined symptoms. Among adult animals, carriage of bacteria predominates. With the carrier of lactating bitches, puppies become ill during the suction period. Often salmonellosis proceeds in a latent form.
The main source of infection in dogs are animals with salmonellosis, as well as bacteriocarriers and bacteriostasis. Of great importance in the spread of the disease are slaughterhouse waste and garbage in landfills. Blood, meat and bone and fish meal are also often seeded with salmonella.
Among dogs, 1-18% of salmonella carriers were noted. Reducing the body's resistance often leads to the development of a generalized form of the disease, and septicemia that occurs in these cases is accompanied by abundant release of salmonella into the external environment. The main reservoir of salmonella is considered poultry. Salmonellosis is also widespread among wild birds (pigeons, gulls, sparrows) and rodents (rats, mice).
Predisposing factors for the occurrence of salmonellosis in nurseries can be a large crowding of animals, gastrointestinal diseases caused by poor-quality feed, helminthic invasions, and exhaustion of animals. These factors are especially important for puppies during the transition to self-feeding.
Immunity after a disease is unstable.
Symptoms The course of the disease is affected by both internal and external factors. Weakened animals get sick more severely and with an increased lethal outcome. In puppies, an acute course is more often observed. The incubation period of the disease is 3-5 days. Animals are usually sluggish, they have an increase in body temperature, they refuse to feed. Puppies moan, convulsions are sometimes observed, foam is released from the mouth. Vomiting is often noted, especially after feeding, and with damage to the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea occurs with a large amount of mucus and an admixture of blood. Feces have a fetid odor. Puppies quickly lose weight, their hairline is contaminated with fecal matter, becomes stained, dirty. Often there are bronchopneumonia with purulent discharge from the nose. Difficulty breathing, wheezing is heard in the lungs. Less commonly noted are disorders of nervous activity, increased aggressiveness. As a rule, with the simultaneous damage to the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory organs, most sick puppies die.
With toxicoinfection, temporary disorders of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract are observed. Puppies have a decrease or lack of appetite, short-term diarrhea, animals become lethargic, inactive. Identify the cause of such disorders is possible only with the help of serological studies, which allow to determine the causative agent of the disease.
Pathological changes. Most often, general exhaustion, cyanosis of visible mucous membranes is noted.
In the abdominal cavity, a hyperemic and enlarged spleen of a flabby consistency is noteworthy. The liver is also enlarged, often hyperemic, sometimes yellowish. In puppies, in the liver, there are also multiple dotted areas of gray color in the form of tiny nests of necrosis. The gall bladder is stretched and filled with a cloudy, yellowish bile. The kidneys are strongly hyperemic; often, hemorrhages are visible on their cortical layer. The mucous membrane of the stomach is hyperemic, covered with mucus, sometimes minor hemorrhages are noticeable on it. The intestinal mucosa is hyperemic, with hemorrhages of various sizes. In the lungs, there may be changes in the type of local serous pneumonia. On the surface of the lobes of the lung, multiple small hemorrhages. In rare cases, pleura is dark red in color. In the brain and its membranes, blood vessels are also full. Clouding of the cerebrospinal fluid and an increase in its amount were noted.
Diagnosis. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the clinical data, the epizootic situation and the nature of the pathological changes. The main diagnostic method is bacteriological: isolation of a pure culture of the pathogen and its subsequent identification. The parenchymal organs of the corpses of dead animals, vomit, mucous discharge, residues of food and feces of sick animals are subject to research.
Differential diagnosis. Salmonellosis according to some clinical signs is similar to alimentary gastroenteritis, pasteurellosis, plague, enzootic encephalomyelitis, infectious hepatitis.
To exclude nutritional gastroenteritis and pasteurellosis, it is necessary to take pathological material from the dead dogs and conduct bacteriological studies.
In plague-affected dogs, eye lesions in the form of serous or purulent conjunctivitis are most noticeable, and serous-purulent rhinitis is often noted. To a greater extent, a disorder of the nervous system manifests itself in the form of convulsions, paresis and paralysis of the hind limbs.
In encephalomyelitis, signs of a nervous disorder dominate: seizures, convulsions, and also circular movements, sometimes lasting for hours.
Infectious hepatitis is characterized by seasonality, contagiousness, and disease of dogs of all ages. With liver damage, vomiting with an admixture of bile, increased thirst are noted. To clarify the diagnosis, blood is examined by the precipitation reaction.
Treatment. With salmonellosis, treatment should be aimed at reducing toxicosis. In the mild course of the disease, administration of polyvalent bacteriophage, enteroseptol, furadonin to animals is effective. Isotonic sodium chloride solution has a good effect. In severe cases, a good effect is obtained from the use of antibiotics: chloramphenicol, tetracycline, neomycin, ampicillin, etc.
A large role in improving the general condition of sick animals is played by fresh, easily digestible feeds. The premises need to be cleaned and disinfected more often, since the causative agent of the disease is constantly excreted with excrement. You should add a weak solution of potassium permanganate to drinking water, and also change it more often.
Prevention and control measures. Salmonellosis is a zooanthroponic disease, therefore, when caring for sick animals, personal preventive measures must be followed. For the purposes of effective prevention, it is necessary to carry out strict isolation of sick animals with subsequent disinfection of the place where they were and all items related to their maintenance.
In the kennels of newly arrived or long-absent dogs are quarantined. All items of care, utensils for food at the time of enzootia should be strictly assigned to animals. Periodically carry out deratization. All feed residues, excrement must be carefully disposed of, and corpses burned.
For disinfection using hot solutions of 3% caustic soda, 7% dump, 2% solution of formaldehyde, bleach with 4% active chlorine. In winter, 5% of sodium chloride is added to disinfectant solutions.
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