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Salmonellosis is an acute contagious disease affecting mainly puppies of weaning age.
Etiology. The genus Salmonella includes 65 groups and is widely distributed in nature. Salmonella parasites in the body domestic, as well as wild animals, including birds, fish, reptiles. Many species are highly pathogenic and dangerous to humans. In dogs, Salm is more common. cholerae suis, S. enteritidis, and in bacterial carriers - S. tuphimurium.
Resistance. Salmonella is fairly resistant to low and high temperatures. In the ice, they persist for several months; on wooden surfaces remain viable for 3.5 months, in soil contaminated by feces and urine - up to 3 months, in manure - up to a year, in water - a few weeks, in meat, bread - 1-3 months, at room temperature - 2-3 months. When heated to 60-70 ° C salmonella die within an hour. Longer they retain their viability in large pieces of meat, so, in a piece weighing 400 g kept cooking for 2.5 hours. Salting and smoking products have a weak effect on Salmonella.
Epizootology. Dogs usually get sick in farms that are unsuccessful for salmonellosis farm animals, at any time of the year. It is noted that puppies often get sick between the ages of 1 to 6 months. They have a disease with well-marked symptoms. Among adult animals, bacterial carriage prevails. In case of bacteriocarrier, lactating puppies get sick during the nursing period. Often, salmonellosis occurs in a latent form.
The main source of infection of dogs are animals with salmonellosis, as well as bacteria carriers and bacteria excreta. Of great importance in the spread of the disease are slaughterhouse waste and waste in landfills. Blood, meat and bone meal and fish meal are also often seeded with salmonella.
Among dogs, 1–18% of salmonella carriers are noted. A decrease in the resistance of the organism often leads to the development of a generalized form of the disease, and the septicemia that occurs in these cases is accompanied by an abundant release of Salmonella into the external environment. The main reservoir of salmonella is poultry. Salmonellosis is also widespread among wild birds (pigeons, gulls, sparrows) and rodents (rats, mice).
Predisposing factors for the occurrence of salmonellosis in nurseries can be a large density of animals, gastrointestinal diseases caused by poor-quality food, helminthic invasions, depletion of animals. These factors are particularly important for puppies during the transition to self-feeding.
Immunity after the disease is unstable.
Symptoms Both internal and external factors influence the course of the disease. Weakened animals suffer more severely and with an increased lethal outcome. Puppies often have an acute course. The incubation period of the disease is 3-5 days. Animals are usually sluggish, they have a rise in body temperature, they refuse to feed. Puppies groan, convulsions are sometimes observed, foam is released from the mouth. Vomiting is often noted, especially after feeding, and if the gastrointestinal tract is affected, diarrhea occurs with a lot of mucus and blood. Feces have a fetid odor. Puppies lose weight quickly, their hair is contaminated by fecal masses, it becomes dirty and dirty. Often there are bronchopneumonia with purulent discharge from the nose. Breathing difficult, in the lungs are wheezing. Rarely noted disorders of the nervous activity, increased aggressiveness. As a rule, while simultaneously affecting the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory organs, most of the diseased puppies die.
When toxicoinfection observed temporary disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Puppies have a decrease or lack of appetite, short-term diarrhea, animals become lethargic, inactive. To identify the cause of these disorders can only be using serological studies to determine the causative agent.
Pathological changes. The most frequently noted is general exhaustion, cyanosis of the visible mucous membranes.
In the abdominal cavity, a hyperemic and enlarged spleen with a flabby consistency attracts attention. The liver is also enlarged, often hyperemic, sometimes yellowish. In puppies in the liver are also found multiple dot gray areas in the shape of the smallest nests of necrosis. The gallbladder is distended and filled with a turbid, yellowish bile. The kidneys are strongly hyperemic, and often on the cortical layer they show pinpoint hemorrhages. The mucous membrane of the stomach is hyperemic, covered with mucus, sometimes minor hemorrhages are noticeable on it. The intestinal mucosa is hyperemic, with hemorrhages of various sizes. In the lungs, there may be changes in the type of local serous pneumonia. On the surface of the lung lobes multiple minor hemorrhages. In rare cases, the pleura is dark red. In the brain and its membranes, blood vessels are also noted. Marked clouding of the cerebrospinal fluid and an increase in its quantity.
Diagnosis. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the clinical data, epizootic situation and the nature of the pathological changes. The main diagnostic method is bacteriological: isolation of a pure culture of the pathogen and its subsequent identification. Subject to examination are parenchymal organs of the corpses of dead animals, vomit, mucous secretions, food remains and feces of sick animals.
Differential diagnosis. According to some clinical signs, salmonellosis is similar to alimentary gastroenteritis, pasteurellosis, plague, enzootic encephalomyelitis, and infectious hepatitis.
To exclude alimentary gastroenteritis and pasteurellosis, it is necessary to take pathological material from fallen dogs and conduct bacteriological studies.
In dogs infected with plague, eye lesions are most noticeable in the form of serous or purulent conjunctivitis, and serous-purulent rhinitis is often noted. The nervous system disorder is more pronounced in the form of convulsions, paresis and paralysis of the hind limbs.
When encephalomyelitis is dominated by signs of a nervous breakdown: seizures, convulsions, as well as circular movements, sometimes lasting for hours.
Infectious hepatitis is characterized by seasonality, contagiousness, disease of dogs of all ages. With liver damage, vomiting with an admixture of bile, increased thirst are noted. To clarify the diagnosis, blood is tested for precipitation.
Treatment. When salmonellosis treatment should be aimed at reducing toxicosis. In case of mild disease, the introduction of polyvalent bacteriophage, enteroseptol, furadonin to animals is effective. Isotonic solution of sodium chloride has a good effect. In severe cases, a good effect is obtained from the use of antibiotics: chloramphenicol, tetracycline, neomycin, ampicillin, etc.
A large role in improving the general condition of sick animals is played by fresh, easily digestible feed. The premises should be cleaned and disinfected more often, since the pathogen is constantly excreted with excrement. You should add a weak solution of potassium permanganate in drinking water, as well as change it more often.
Prevention and control measures. Salmonellosis is a zooanthroponotic disease, therefore, when taking care of sick animals, it is necessary to observe personal prevention measures. In order to effectively prevent, it is necessary to strictly isolate sick animals, followed by disinfecting the place where they were located and all items related to their maintenance.
In kennels, newly arrived or long-absent dogs are placed in quarantine. All the items of care, dishes for food at the time of enzootic should be strictly attached to the animals. Periodically carry out deratization. All residues of feed, excrement must be carefully disposed of, and the corpses burned.
For disinfection use hot solutions of 3% caustic soda, 7% dump, 2% formaldehyde solution, bleach with 4% active chlorine. In winter, 5% of common salt is added to disinfectant solutions.
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Birds salmonellosis (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course in the form of septicemia in young and latent infection in adult birds. Historical background, distribution, degree of danger and damage. Salmonella is widespread. For the first time, salmonella was isolated from the organs of pigs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
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