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Salmonellosis of ostriches
Salmonellosis is an infectious disease characterized by septicemia, fibrinous diphtheria of the intestine.
Etiology. In ostriches, Salmonella enteridis is most often isolated. These are short gram-negative movable sticks with rounded ends. They do not form spores and capsules; they are cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Epizootological data. The main source of the pathogen is sick and ill ostriches contaminated with the pathogen feed. Infection occurs most often through the gastrointestinal tract. Vertical transmission of the microbe from the hatching egg to the chick is also possible. An important role in the etiology of salmonellosis is played by the lack of proper conditions of detention, which reduces the body's resistance. This leads to an increase in the virulence of Salmonella rods located in the gastrointestinal tract. Ostriches that have suffered a disease or have been ill without symptoms become carriers of a microbe located not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in the liver and ovaries. In the cesspool, an infection of the egg shell by microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract can occur. Salmonella enter the egg and cause the death of the embryos, as well as infect chicks hatched from uninfected eggs. In young animals, the disease is acute, death reaches 50%; in adults, chronically.
The course and symptoms. The main symptom is weakness, diarrhea, general apathy, lethargy, imbalance, watery feces. Nervous phenomena are also characteristic: convulsions, manegeal movements, alternating with paralysis and semi-paralysis.
In the chronic course, diarrhea, exhaustion, swelling in the joints, lameness, nervous phenomena, conjunctivitis are observed.
Pathological changes. Stiffness is weak. Corpses are depleted, often reveal conjunctivitis. The liver is enlarged, unevenly colored, fibrinous deposits are sometimes noticeable on its surface. In the liver parenchyma, multiple necrotic nodules of a grayish-yellow color are found. The intestinal mucosa is edematous, hyperemic, in some areas there are small hemorrhages, pityriasis plaque of fibrinous exudate. In the cecum, the formation of small ulcers with raised, roll-shaped edges is typical. In a chronic course, croupous or diphtheria colitis is established.
The diagnosis of salmonellosis is made comprehensively, taking into account epizootological data, clinical signs and pathological changes. The final diagnosis is established by laboratory methods.
For treatment, you can use: pharmaspektin intramuscularly or subcutaneously in a dose of 1 ml / 2.5 kg of live weight 1 time per day for 3 days; norflox in a dose of 1 kg per 4000 l of drinking water for 3-5 days; oxytetracycline-pharm in a dose of 50-125 mg of the drug per 1 kg of live weight with feed or drinking water; 5% oxiteter in a dose of 2 kg of the drug per 500 liters of drinking water daily for 3-5 days; nifulin at a dose of 2 kg / 1 ton of feed for 5-7 days; Baytril in an amount of 10 mg / kg body weight orally for 8-10 days; furazolidone-pharm in a dose of 2-3 mg / kg of weight for 3-7 days with food; colitrim in a dose of 1kg / 1000l of water for 3-5 days.
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Salmonellosis of ostriches
- Staphylococcosis of ostriches
Staphylococcosis is an infectious disease of ostriches, characterized mainly by purulent inflammation of the joints of the limbs, sometimes dermatitis. Etiology. The causative agent of Staphylococcus aureus, less commonly Staphylococcus citreus. These are gram-positive aerobes and facultative anaerobes, grow on ordinary nutrient media, and give hemolysis on blood media. Staphylococcus aureus (and sometimes white)
- Ostrich streptococcosis
Streptococcosis is an infectious disease of ostriches, proceeding acutely and chronically, characterized by septicemia, damage to the skin and joints. Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is hemolytic streptococcus from serological group C - Str. zooepidemicuc. Specific or oval cells located in a chain of 6-8 cocci. Optional gram-positive anaerobes. Painted by
- Ostrich Flu
This acute contagious disease is caused by a virus from the Orthomyxoviridae family, type A, characterized by damage to the respiratory and digestive organs, edema and depression. The disease occurs mainly in South Africa. Etiology. To date, several types of this virus have been identified in ostriches, in particular, H7N1, H5N9, H5N2, H9N2. The reservoir of the virus can be agricultural and
- Aspergillosis ostriches
Aspergillosis is a disease of ostriches caused by pathogenic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, characterized by damage to air sacs, nodular or catarrhal pneumonia, less commonly bronchi and trachea. Etiology. The disease is caused by molds - Aspergillus fumingatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger - which produce strong toxins. Cultivated on апapek agar at temperature
- Ostrich hemophilia
Hemophilia is an enzootically occurring infectious disease characterized by edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the facial part of the head, inflammation of the infraorbital sinuses, serous or serous-fibrinous exudate in the acute stage of the disease. Etiology. The causative agent - Haemophilus gallinarum - small gram-negative cocci. Aerobes, optional anaerobes. In smears from exudate from sick ostriches
- Smallpox ostriches
Smallpox is a very contagious disease caused by a dermotropic virus from the Avipoxvirus family, which manifests itself in the form of smallpox exanthema or diphteroid lesions, often in a mixed form (smallpox-diphteroid), sometimes atypical and often with a chronic course. Etiology. DNA containing the virus belongs to the genus Avipoxvirus is sensitive to high temperature, ethyl alcohol. Lyophilization and
- Ostrich Anaerobic Enterotoxemia
Anaerobic enterotoxemia - characterized by general toxemia, developing as a result of active reproduction in the intestines of various types of Clostridium perfringens. Etiology. Clostridium perfringens - thick, short sticks with chopped ends. Fixed, have no flagella. In the body they form a capsule. In alkaline environments that do not contain carbohydrates, they form central or subterminal
- Fusariotoxicosis of ostriches
Fusariotoxicosis is a poisoning that occurs as a result of eating feed affected by toxic fungi of the genus Fusarium. Etiology. Toxic fungi of the genus Fusarium Link are thermostable, resistant to acids and alkalis. Poisoning is caused by the vital products of fungi that accumulate in cereals and fodder grains, legumes, various fruits (toxins - poin, fusarin, sporofusarin
- Basic principles of "biosecurity" and prevention of ostrich diseases
In the field of ostrich farming, it is difficult to get good production and economic results without following the basic principles of prevention and protection of ostrich health. Owing to the exceptional susceptibility of ostriches to infectious diseases, as well as to diseases caused by a lack of proper care and feeding, it is necessary to follow the basic rules of prevention based on "biosecurity"
- Ostrich Respiratory Mycoplasmosis
Respiratory mycoplasmosis is an infectious disease of ostriches, characterized by damage to the air sacs, mucous membrane of the nose and lungs and a chronic course. Etiology. As a rule, Mykoplasma synoviae and Mykoplasma gallisepticum are called. Both pathogens do not form optional aerobes, spores and capsules; when stained according to Gram stain negatively, according to Romanovsky-Giemsa
Salmonellosis of birds (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course of septicemia in young animals and latent infection in an adult bird. Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. Salmonella is widespread. Salmonella was first isolated from pig organs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
Salmonellosis (lat., Eng. - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid) - a large group of zoonotic diseases mainly of farm animals, characterized in young animals in the acute course of fever, septicemia, toxicosis and diarrhea, and in subacute and chronic - pneumonia and arthritis; in adult females, by abortion; in humans, it proceeds in the form of foodborne toxicoinfections (see color insert).
- OSTROUS DISEASES
Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) is an infectious disease of birds, mainly young animals, characterized by diarrhea, conjunctivitis, septicemia, intestinal damage and exhaustion. Etiology. The causative agents of the disease S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. сholeraesuis, short gram-negative, motile, spores and capsules not forming sticks. In the external environment retains its biological properties