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Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) - an infectious disease of young animals, characterized by a violation of the digestive tract, the development of toxemia, sepsis, sometimes metritis and abortion.
Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is a gram-negative movable rod with rounded ends, it does not form spores and capsules, it is relatively stable in the external environment. The disease in small animals is more often caused by Sal. choleraesuis, Sal. enteritidis, Sal. typhimurium.
Epizootology. Young salmon of all species of domestic and farm animals is susceptible to salmonellosis. Carnivores are more often sick at the age of 1-6 months, rabbits and nutria at 1-3 months of age.
The source of the causative agent of the infection is sick animals and bacteria carriers that excrete the pathogen with feces, urine, nasal discharge, saliva and milk. Pathogen transmission factors are contaminated feed (meat, bone and fish meal, slaughterhouse waste), and in addition, water, litter, and care items. Pathogens can be mice, rats, birds, insects.
Infection occurs alimentarily. Possible aerogenic and intrauterine infection. Outbreaks of the disease are recorded at any time of the year, in the presence of a susceptible contingent of animals. The disease is characterized by stationarity, with the intensive development of epizootics with a wide coverage of a large number of animals. Mortality within 10 days after whelping can reach 20%.
Pathogenesis. Salmonella, once on the intestinal mucosa, actively multiply, releasing endotoxins, causing its inflammation. With insufficient resistance of the body, septicemia develops with characteristic clinical signs.
Symptoms and course. The incubation period in carnivores is 3-20 days, in rabbits and nutria 2-5 days. The course of the disease is acute, subacute and chronic.
In carnivores in the acute course of the disease, an increase in body temperature, lethargy, and a decrease in appetite are recorded. Vomiting is often noted (especially after ingestion of food), convulsions with the release of foam from the mouth are sometimes observed. Then diarrhea develops, while the feces have a fetid odor and contain a large amount of mucus and blood. Puppies quickly lose weight, the hairline near the anus is contaminated with feces. Death occurs on the 2-3rd day.
In rabbits and nutria, a refusal of food, a short-term excitement, which turns into a coma, is noted. Body temperature rises to 41-42 ° C. Vomiting and diarrhea are sometimes observed. In nutria, in addition, bloody nasal discharge, cramps, paralysis of individual pectoral muscles, weakness of the posterior half of the body and profuse salivation are recorded.
In a subacute course in carnivores, along with signs of a pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, a disturbance in the activity of the respiratory system with the development of bronchopneumonia and purulent outflows from the nose is noted. Breathing becomes difficult, and wheezing is heard in the lungs.
Sometimes nervous phenomena appear, aggressiveness increases.
In the case of the development of toxicoinfection, regardless of the type of animal, the disease is accompanied by a temporary dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.
Pathological changes. At the autopsy of the dead animals, when the disease was accompanied by an acute course, hemorrhages in the internal organs, serous and mucous membranes, an increase in the spleen by 5-8 times, granular and fatty degeneration of the liver with foci of necrosis, serous pleuropneumonia are detected, and in the case of subacute course, catarrhal bronchopneumonia is detected.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis of salmonellosis is established taking into account a complex of clinical and epizootological data, autopsy results and laboratory tests. Intravital diagnosis is based on the study of feces and blood samples. The diagnosis is considered established when isolating cultures with characteristic properties for salmonella from the material, followed by identification using O- and H-sera; upon receipt of positive results in RA in titers of 1: 200 and higher with a score of at least 3+ in the study of blood serum samples.
Salmonellosis should be differentiated from alimentary gastroenteritis, colibacteriosis, pasteurellosis, streptococcosis, infectious hepatitis, where the pathogen is excreted and serological identification is based.
Treatment. Treatment should be comprehensive, involving the use of etiotropic, pathogenetic, symptomatic therapy. Antibacterial drugs should be used taking into account the sensitivity of Salmonella to them. Of the specific agents, in the treatment of animals with salmonellosis, polyvalent antitoxic serum is used
Prevention and control measures. The effectiveness of health-improving measures for salmonellosis is determined by the degree of implementation of a set of measures, including isolation of sick animals, their treatment; timely disinfection, which involves breaking the epizootic chain and preventing the further spread of the pathogen; immunization of clinically healthy animals. In order to create immunity in the livestock, a multivalent vaccine is used against salmonellosis and colibacillosis of fur animals. Mandatory measures are provided for the implementation of the deratization and disinfection of equipment, care items, work clothes; disposal of manure and feed residues; burning corpses and quarantining newly arrived animals. For disinfection, a 3% solution of sodium hydroxide, a 2% solution of formaldehyde, 1% solutions of methacide, polisept, fogunide, virkon C. should be used. Carcasses of forced rabbits and nutria are used for good nutrition after 1, 5 hours of cooking. Depleted - recycle.
Dysfunctional economy (fur farm) is considered healthy from salmonellosis after 3 months. after the recovery of sick animals, vaccination and final disinfection.
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Salmonellosis of birds (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course of septicemia in young animals and latent infection in an adult bird. Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. Salmonella is widespread. Salmonella was first isolated from pig organs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
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- Salmonellosis and other acute intestinal diarrheal infections
Training target: using diagnostic algorithms, be able to establish a diagnosis of salmonellosis, escherichiosis and other acute intestinal diarrheal diseases, determine the clinical form, severity, stage of the disease, and prescribe adequate treatment; conduct dispensary observation. Assignment for independent study of the topic. Using the textbook and lecture material for the acquisition