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Birds salmonellosis (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course in the form of septicemia in young and latent infection in adult birds.
Historical background, distribution, degree of danger and damage. Salmonella is widespread. For the first time, Salmonella was isolated from the organs of pigs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885. Later, diseases similar in etiology were called para-typhus.
The economic damage caused by chick salmonellosis consists mainly of losses from early age chicks, lag in growth and development of diseased young chickens, reduction in egg and meat productivity of the adult livestock, culling of patients and salmonellosis carriers, restrictions on sales of products from farms that are unsuccessful in salmonellosis chickens, costs to improve the economy.
The sick bird remains for life the carrier and source of the infectious agent, accumulating it, including in poultry products - eggs. Bird and eggs serve as dangerous sources of salmonellosis for people, which occurs in the form of severe intestinal disorders and intoxication. In addition, being weakened, such chickens are more susceptible to the influence of other pathogenic agents.
The causative agent of the disease. The causative agents of salmonellosis of birds can be various non-adapted to the bird salmonella serovars (with the exception of S. pullorum-gallinarum, which causes an independent disease, see Pullorosis), but mainly S. enteritidis and S. typhi-murium, causing salmonellosis of the waterfowl.
For cultural and morphological properties, all Salmonella are similar (see Salmonella). Differentiate Salmonella by their growth on the media Endo, Ploskirev, Levin and others.
Salmonella is quite stable in the environment and to the action of physical and chemical factors. In the litter and feed, they retain their viability for up to 100 days, in the soil - over 400 days, in the downy raw materials - over 1150 days.
Epizootology. The most susceptible to salmonellosis are chickens, turkey poults, especially meat breeds, and in the first days of life. The main source of the causative agent of infection is the sick bird, which releases a large amount of the pathogen with the litter. In salmonellosis, the transovarial infection can be important - through the egg. The number of infected eggs laid by laying hens varies greatly and increases during the period of enhanced egg-laying. The causative agent of infection is contained in the yolk and causes the death of embryos at all stages of embryonic development. The sick bird, secreting the pathogen into the external environment, infects feed, water, and equipment.
The causative agent of the disease can also spread wild birds (pigeons, sparrows), rodents (mice, rats), ectoparasites (ticks, bird bugs). The causative agent of infection may be contained in fish and meat and bone meal; on average, every fifth batch of feed is infected with salmonella. In case of salmonellosis, both vertical and horizontal pathways of infection transmission are noted. Of primary importance are alimentary and aerogenic infection.
Often breeding farms, selling products to another farm, bring the infectious agent with the egg. Inadequate and late feeding of birds, overcrowding,
overheating, overcooling, i.e. factors contributing to a decrease in natural resistance.
The incidence of chickens salmonellosis varies from tenths to several tens of percent. Mortality in salmonellosis chickens in Russia is 13 ... 25%.
Pathogenesis. In the development of the disease is of great importance the production of endo - and exotoxins.
In case of nutritional infection, the pathogen enters the gastrointestinal tract, is localized on the intestinal mucosa (primary affect) - blind processes, causing inflammatory and degenerative changes. As a result of the violation of the barrier functions of the mucous membrane, the microbe enters the lymphatic and blood vessels, is carried by blood to all internal organs, causing septicemia and necrosis (secondary localization of the pathogen). Then the salmonellae re-enter the bloodstream, disrupting the functioning of the internal organs, leading to death.
In the case of aerogenic transmission, the pathogen enters the lungs, forming foci of necrosis, from where it penetrates the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body.
Current and clinical manifestation. The incubation period lasts for an alimentary infection for 5 ... 7 days, and for an aerosol - only 24 ... 36 hours. There are over-acute, acute, sub-acute and chronic course of the disease.
Hypertensive course of infection is observed in chickens that had already bred. They die a few hours after the withdrawal. The acute course is more often noted in young animals at the age of 1 ... 10 days. In sick chickens, appetite worsens or disappears. They become lethargic, eyes half-closed or closed, wings lowered. Chickens move slowly, often squeaking. The main symptom is diarrhea. Often the disease occurs with nerve problems, this is especially characteristic of the bred ducks. In subacute and chronic course, clinical signs are less pronounced.
Salmonella-like peculiarity manifests itself in pigeons: acutely flowing disease often prevails in pigeons up to 6 weeks of age, most of them die after a few days. Signs of the disease: loss of appetite, inflammation of the conjunctiva, bowel function disorder. In the future, the pigeons lose their strength, they are indifferent, drowsy, the feather is disheveled, there is thirst. Body temperature in all cases of acute course is increased. With intestinal form, the flow is subacute and chronic. Symptoms of intestinal inflammation: persistent diarrhea, liquid manure, contains blood, tail feathers are heavily polluted. The articular form occurs in young pigeons and doves after having had a septic form. Initially, inflammation of the joints and tendons proceeds without visible changes. Later they increase, the volume of articular fluid increases. The affected bird is unable to fly, run, so the disease is sometimes called paralysis.
In these forms of lesion, limb twitching and trembling are sometimes noted. The musculature of the wings, legs first compacted, then comes its atrophy. Under the skin of the joints nodules the size of a pea are formed - granulomas. If two limbs are affected, the pigeon moves with the help of wings.
The nervous form in most cases occurs subacutely or chronically, occurs much less frequently in comparison with others.
Characterized by nerve phenomena, loss of ability to move. If you do not separate or destroy such a bird, the symptoms may persist for several days or weeks. The bird lies on its side with a bent neck; neck bending is a fairly typical symptom; if the auditory labyrinth is affected, then the curvature of the neck occurs precisely on this side.
Pathological signs. In the dead embryos the contents of the yolk sac are grass-green, in the liver there are foci of necrosis. The gallbladder is usually enlarged and filled with a viscous bile; observe ampuliform expansion of the rectum with uric acid salts or gases, increased deposition of uric acid salts on the allan-tois.
In the chickens who died from salmonellosis in the first days of life, a large unused yolk the size of a nut, catarrhal-hemorrhagic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is observed. The blind processes of the intestine are filled with a fibrinous mass. With the cellular content of young animals, especially broilers, leg joints are often affected. In adult birds, the yolk follicles are irregular in shape, reborn, contain a necrotic mass of green.
The mucous membrane of the gallbladder is swollen, hyperemic. When salmonellosis is caused by S. enteritidis, the gallbladder is filled with a dark-olive-colored bile mixed with fibrin and mucus.
In the subacute and chronic course of the disease, predominantly the large intestine is affected, especially the processes of the cecum, where necrosis of the mucous membrane is detected with fibrin overlays on its surface. In the parenchymal organs, the changes are similar to those described in the acute course, but are more pronounced.
In the chest cavity, serous effusion with admixture of fibrin flakes is detected. The lungs foci of gray-red color. The heart is slightly enlarged due to the expansion of the right ventricle. Myocardium is flabby, coronary vessels are filled with blood.
Diagnostics and differential diagnostics. The diagnosis of the disease is similar to that for pullorosis. Bacteriological cultures are made on ordinary and differential diagnostic media (Endo, Ploskirev, Levin agar) from yolk, liver, gallbladder, brain in young birds and altered follicles from adult birds.
For diagnostic purposes, a blood-drop indirect hemagglutination (CCRNA) reaction was proposed.
Salmonellosis must be differentiated from infectious hepatitis, ducklings sinusitis, ornithosis.
Immunity, specific prevention. Ducklings, goslings that have recovered from an infection caused by S. typhimurium acquire immunity, but remain carriers of the pathogen against the background of immunity. The body of these birds, in the absence of reinfection, is completely freed from Salmonella only 60 ... 70 days after re-illness. In chickens and turkey poults, immunity is poorly pronounced.
A live, avirulent salmonellosis vaccine has been developed and is being produced to immunize ducks and geese. Ducklings and goslings are vaccinated orally from 2 ... 3 days of age, and after 2 days the vaccination is repeated. The vaccine creates a tense immunity for a period of 3 ... 3.5 months. This allows you to prevent acute outbreaks of the disease, to reduce the time of bacterial
breeding and enhances bird safety. You can vaccinate twice and adult birds before the start of the breeding period.
Prevention. To prevent the occurrence of salmonellosis in poultry farms, the following is necessary: 1) sanitation of feedstuffs with carbosal and other sanitizing preparations; 2) provision of exit barriers and sanitary inspection rooms to prevent salmonellosis from entering the farms; For disinfection of objects, it is necessary to use universal preparations gluteks, natusan, vircon C and others; 3) special attention should be paid to the hygiene of nests and hatching eggs received from chickens, the shells of which are treated with preparations (vircon C, BB-1, desmol, metacide and others); 4) strictly observe the sampling time of the hatching, and incubation wastes to be incinerated or disposed of; 5) to disinfect incubation cabinets, containers and transport after each use; 6) to assign probiotics to young animals in the first feeding.
Treatment. Kolmik-E, enfloksatril, eriprim concentrate, avidox, colimycin, albac, and other antibacterial drugs are used to treat the patient of the removed young. Most of the drugs are active against Salmonella at the onset of the disease and during the incubation period of the disease; therefore, obviously the sick bird is culled, and the rest are given drugs with food or water according to the instruction.
Control measures. Due to the fact that in adult birds the disease is chronically in an asymptomatic form, and the young birds that have survived for a long time remain a carrier of bacteria, in the eradication of the disease, the mass in vivo diagnosis is very important. The study of birds of parental herds by CCRNA for the well-being of salmonellosis should be carried out in a compulsory and mandatory manner, as well as for pullorosis. This allows you to accurately determine the presence or absence of infection, the degree of disadvantage of the herd, to remove bacteria carriers and timely carry out treatment, specific prophylaxis.
A bird reacting to CCRNGA for salmonellosis is sent to a sanitary slaughterhouse and disinfecting poultry houses in the presence of poultry, and bleach is added to the litter. Inventory, nests, feeders are subjected to mechanical cleaning, washing, disinfection in a wet way.
If a CCRNGA responds positively to 7 to 10% or more of adult birds, it is not economically feasible to rehabilitate such a flock by systematic research, treatment or vaccination. Therefore, such a poultry population is subject to slaughter, and poultry houses - rehabilitation. In the case of the clinical manifestation of the disease among the young or adult, the livestock of sick birds are culled, killed, and the birds are discarded.
Restrictions on salmonellosis of birds from the farm are removed when negative results are obtained twice in CCRNA, as well as in the case of a systematic bacteriological examination of the pathological material, the pathogen of salmonellosis is not isolated.
Control questions and tasks. 1. What is the epidemiological significance of bird salmonellosis? 2. What are the sources and factors of transmission of the pathogen. 3. What are the principles of diagnosis and differential diagnosis for bird salmonellosis? 4. What modern chemotherapy drugs are used against salmonellosis? 5. List the preventive and control measures that prevent food toxin-infection.
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