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Salmonella

Salmonellosis (lat., English. - Salmonellisis) - a disease of adult bees, manifested by damage to the digestive system.

The causative agents of the disease. The disease can be caused by various representatives of the genus Salmonella: S. typhimurium, S. gallinarum-pullorum, S. enteritidis, S. dublin, S. florida (see part 1, Salmonella).

Salmonella is pathogenic to animals and birds of many species and is often found in various insects that accumulate in sewage. Various types of salmonella were found in the intestinal contents of healthy bees, isolated from honey.

When passing through the hemolymph of bees, the microorganism enhances its virulence for insects, whose life span is reduced from 2 ... 3 days to 2 ... 4 hours.

Salmonella remain viable in water for 70 ... 84 days, in indoor dust - up to 80 days. S. pullorum is able to reproduce after storage at 37 ° C in honey for 70 ... 90 days; at 13 ... 27 ° C for 20 to 210 days, and at

6504 "C - 176 ... 270 days. In the wax at 17 ... 24 ° C, 170 days remain, at 4" C - 210 days; on honeycombs at 4 ° C - 260 days; in a 0.025% propolis solution — 10 days. The safety of S. typhivurium in various honeys at 37 ° С - 60 ... 95 days; at 13 ... 27 ° C-18 ... 30 days; at 4 ° C-17b ... 270 days.

Epizootology. The disease is recorded in several countries around the world. Most often noted in apiaries located near livestock buildings, livestock sites, near contaminated water sources.

The source of the causative agent of the infection is various animals and humans - patients and bacteria carriers. Salmonella, washed out of manure-fertilized soils by spring runoff and rains, can spread widely and fall on melliferous plants of flood meadows, fields, garden plots, and thereby be included in the circulation chain of honey bees.
S. typliimurium and, possibly, S. enteritidis are most often isolated from bees, which may be due to active contamination of honeycombs and equipment in the cell stores or bee nests in the winter house by excretions of mouse rodents.

Disease and death of bees is recorded in the winter-spring period, often in the form of separate enzootic outbreaks in one or more nearby apiaries.

The predisposing factors of the disease are the same as with hafniosis.

Pathogenesis, course and clinical manifestation, pathological signs. Are similar to those at other enterobacterioses (see. Haf-niosis).

Diagnostics and differential diagnostics. The diagnosis is based on the allocation of the pathogen, taking into account the signs of the disease and the epizootic situation.

For laboratory confirmation of the disease, 30 sick bees and fresh corpses are sent. Crops are made from hemolymph or chest muscles. Bacteriological studies and the identification of salmonella are carried out similarly to studies for other salmonellosis (see Part 1, Salmonella, Diagnosis).

The disease is differentiated from other enterobacterioses and nosematosis of bees.

Immunity, specific prevention. The immunity to salmonellosis in bees, obviously, is formed in the same way as in other animals. Oral vaccination is possible, but vaccination is not developed.

Treatment. In the treatment of bees, they successfully apply feeding them various antibiotics, taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen. Salmonella isolated from bees are sensitive to monomycin, mycerin, levo-mycetin. However, only oxytetracycline is currently recommended for the treatment of bees.

Prevention and control measures. Similar to those with hafniosis.
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Salmonella

  1. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis of birds (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of ​​birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course of septicemia in young animals and latent infection in an adult bird. Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. Salmonella is widespread. Salmonella was first isolated from pig organs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
  2. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis (lat., Eng. - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid) - a large group of zoonotic diseases mainly of farm animals, characterized in young animals in the acute course of fever, septicemia, toxicosis and diarrhea, and in subacute and chronic - pneumonia and arthritis; in adult females, by abortion; in humans, it proceeds in the form of foodborne toxicoinfections (see color insert).
  3. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) is an infectious disease of birds, mainly young animals, characterized by diarrhea, conjunctivitis, septicemia, intestinal damage and exhaustion. Etiology. The causative agents of the disease S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. сholeraesuis, short gram-negative, motile, spores and capsules not forming sticks. In the external environment retains its biological properties
  4. SALMONELLOSIS AND THEIR PREVENTION
    According to the classification of foodborne diseases, salmonellosis was previously assigned to the group of microbial food poisoning that causes toxic infections. Currently, according to the current classification, salmonellosis is assigned to the group of acute intestinal infections, where they are allocated in an independent section: "Other salmonella intestinal toxicoinfections." However, in their appearance, course, prevention, they also
  5. SALMONELLOSIS (SALMONELLOSIS)
    Salmonellosis is an acute contagious disease that affects mainly puppies of weaned age. Etiology. The genus Salmonella includes 65 groups and is widespread in nature. Salmonella parasitizes in the body of domestic as well as wild animals, including birds, fish, reptiles. Many species are highly pathogenic and dangerous to humans. In dogs, Salm is more often excreted. cholerae suis, S.
  6. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) - an infectious disease of young animals, characterized by a violation of the digestive tract, the development of toxemia, sepsis, sometimes metritis and abortion. Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is a gram-negative movable rod with rounded ends, does not form spores and capsules, is relatively stable in the external environment. Disease in small animals
  7. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) is an infectious disease of young farm animals and fur animals, characterized by acute fever and enteritis, and chronic - pneumonia and joint damage. Etiology. The causative agent in piglets is S. cholerae suis and its variants; in calves, S. dublin, less commonly S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis; in lambs, S. abortus ovis; in foals
  8. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease caused by microbes of the genus Salmonella, occurring mainly with gastrointestinal tract lesions, less often in the form of generalized forms. Clinical Diagnostics The incubation period for the alimentary route of infection is 12-24 hours, for contact - 3-7 days. Gastrointestinal form. Gastritis, enteritis, gastroenteritis. The onset is acute. Fever, pain in
  9. Salmonellosis
    Cause The causative agents of the disease are salmonella, motile sticks with flagella found in foods such as eggs, meat and milk. Favorable conditions for the propagation of salmonella are created in hot weather. Products at risk include ice cream, creamy desserts, mayonnaise, salads, egg-protein based dishes (creams, cakes), milkshakes, soft-boiled eggs, etc.
  10. Salmonellosis and other acute intestinal diarrheal infections
    Training target: using diagnostic algorithms, be able to establish a diagnosis of salmonellosis, escherichiosis and other acute intestinal diarrheal diseases, determine the clinical form, severity, stage of the disease, and prescribe adequate treatment; conduct dispensary observation. Assignment for independent study of the topic. Using the textbook and lecture material for the acquisition
  11. Salmonellosis of ostriches
    Salmonellosis is an infectious disease characterized by septicemia, fibrinous diphtheria of the intestine. Etiology. In ostriches, Salmonella enteridis is most often isolated. These are short gram-negative movable sticks with rounded ends. They do not form spores and capsules; they are cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Epizootological data. The main source of pathogen
  12. Salmonellosis
    These are intestinal diseases caused by bacteria of the Salmonella genus (with the exception of Salmonella, which causes typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever), with severe symptoms of intoxication. These microorganisms are stable in the environment, tolerate low temperatures, survive in water and household items at room temperature for up to 45-90 days. In salted meat - 2-3 months, in milk - 2-40 days. At
  13. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease of humans and animals caused by Salmonella serovars and occurs in children more often in the form of gastrointestinal, less often typhoid-like and septic forms. Etiology. Salmonella are motile gram-negative bacteria that do not have capsules and do not form spores. The main antigens of salmonella are flagella (H), antigens of the cell wall (O) and
  14. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease caused by Salmonella, most often Salmonella tyrhimurium. Cats are sick much less often than dogs, although epizootics also occur, especially in kittens (R.M. Gaskell, M. Bennet, 1999). Infection occurs alimentary by eating salmonella-contaminated foods or wild bird meat. As a contributing factor, immunosuppression is isolated.
  15. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis is an infectious disease of bee families, accompanied by the death of adult bees. Etiology. Pathogen - Sal. typhi murium, Sal. cholerae suis, etc. It is gram-negative, motile (except Sal. Pullorum gallinarum), spore and capsules not forming a stick. Optional aerob, size 2-4 x 0.3-0.5 microns. It is well stained with all aniline dyes. Epizootology. Disease
  16. FOOD SALMONELLOSIS
    Salmonellosis is an infectious disease of mammals and birds, proceeding very diverse, but most often in the form of typical toxicoinfections. The main transmission routes are food, less often - contact. HISTORICAL REFERENCE. In 1885, American microbiologists Salmon and Smith isolated a bacterial culture from the meat of sick pigs, which later became a large group of microorganisms called
  17. Paratyphoid (salmonellosis)
    This is an infectious disease of young birds of many species, but ducklings and goslings are mainly affected. The causative agent of the disease is salmonella. A person is also susceptible to the disease. The incubation period of the disease can last from 12 hours to 7 days. Most often, young animals get sick - at 2-6 weeks of age, the bird most weakened and affected by other diseases is most susceptible to the disease.
  18. Salmonella
    Richard L. Guerrant The genus Salmonella consists of three species, which include more than 2,000 different serological types. Serotia differ significantly in their degree of pathogenicity, however, almost all of them are pathogenic for animals and humans. Strict specificity in the choice of hosts is characteristic of certain serotypes, such as S. typhi, which in natural
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