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Salmonellosis (lat., English. - Salmonellisis) - a disease of adult bees, manifested by damage to the digestive system.

The causative agents of the disease. The disease can be caused by various representatives of the genus Salmonella: S. typhimurium, S. gallinarum-pullorum, S. enteritidis, S. dublin, S. florida (see part 1, Salmonella).

Salmonella is pathogenic to animals and birds of many species and is often found in various insects that accumulate in sewage. Various types of salmonella were found in the intestinal contents of healthy bees, isolated from honey.

When passing through the hemolymph of bees, the microorganism enhances its virulence for insects, whose life span is reduced from 2 ... 3 days to 2 ... 4 hours.

Salmonella remain viable in water for 70 ... 84 days, in indoor dust - up to 80 days. S. pullorum is able to reproduce after storage at 37 ° C in honey for 70 ... 90 days; at 13 ... 27 ° C for 20 to 210 days, and at

6504 "C - 176 ... 270 days. In the wax at 17 ... 24 ° C, 170 days remain, at 4" C - 210 days; on honeycombs at 4 ° C - 260 days; in a 0.025% propolis solution — 10 days. The safety of S. typhivurium in various honeys at 37 ° С - 60 ... 95 days; at 13 ... 27 ° C-18 ... 30 days; at 4 ° C-17b ... 270 days.

Epizootology. The disease is recorded in several countries around the world. Most often noted in apiaries located near livestock buildings, livestock sites, near contaminated water sources.

The source of the causative agent of the infection is various animals and humans - patients and bacteria carriers. Salmonella, washed out of manure-fertilized soils by spring runoff and rains, can spread widely and fall on melliferous plants of flood meadows, fields, garden plots, and thereby be included in the circulation chain of honey bees.
S. typliimurium and, possibly, S. enteritidis are most often isolated from bees, which may be due to active contamination of honeycombs and equipment in the cell stores or bee nests in the winter house by excretions of mouse rodents.

Disease and death of bees is recorded in the winter-spring period, often in the form of separate enzootic outbreaks in one or more nearby apiaries.

The predisposing factors of the disease are the same as with hafniosis.

Pathogenesis, course and clinical manifestation, pathological signs. Are similar to those at other enterobacterioses (see. Haf-niosis).

Diagnostics and differential diagnostics. The diagnosis is based on the allocation of the pathogen, taking into account the signs of the disease and the epizootic situation.

For laboratory confirmation of the disease, 30 sick bees and fresh corpses are sent. Crops are made from hemolymph or chest muscles. Bacteriological studies and the identification of salmonella are carried out similarly to studies for other salmonellosis (see Part 1, Salmonella, Diagnosis).

The disease is differentiated from other enterobacterioses and nosematosis of bees.

Immunity, specific prevention. The immunity to salmonellosis in bees, obviously, is formed in the same way as in other animals. Oral vaccination is possible, but vaccination is not developed.

Treatment. In the treatment of bees, they successfully apply feeding them various antibiotics, taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen. Salmonella isolated from bees are sensitive to monomycin, mycerin, levo-mycetin. However, only oxytetracycline is currently recommended for the treatment of bees.

Prevention and control measures. Similar to those with hafniosis.
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  1. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis of birds (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of ​​birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course of septicemia in young animals and latent infection in an adult bird. Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. Salmonella is widespread. Salmonella was first isolated from pig organs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
  2. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis (lat., Eng. - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid) - a large group of zoonotic diseases mainly of farm animals, characterized in young animals in the acute course of fever, septicemia, toxicosis and diarrhea, and in subacute and chronic - pneumonia and arthritis; in adult females, by abortion; in humans, it proceeds in the form of foodborne toxicoinfections (see color insert).
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    According to the classification of foodborne diseases, salmonellosis was previously assigned to the group of microbial food poisoning that causes toxic infections. Currently, according to the current classification, salmonellosis is assigned to the group of acute intestinal infections, where they are allocated in an independent section: "Other salmonella intestinal toxicoinfections." However, in their appearance, course, prevention, they also
    Salmonellosis is an acute contagious disease that affects mainly puppies of weaned age. Etiology. The genus Salmonella includes 65 groups and is widespread in nature. Salmonella parasitizes in the body of domestic as well as wild animals, including birds, fish, reptiles. Many species are highly pathogenic and dangerous to humans. In dogs, Salm is more often excreted. cholerae suis, S.
  6. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) - an infectious disease of young animals, characterized by a violation of the digestive tract, the development of toxemia, sepsis, sometimes metritis and abortion. Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is a gram-negative movable rod with rounded ends, does not form spores and capsules, is relatively stable in the external environment. Disease in small animals
  7. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) is an infectious disease of young farm animals and fur animals, characterized by acute fever and enteritis, and chronic - pneumonia and joint damage. Etiology. The causative agent in piglets is S. cholerae suis and its variants; in calves, S. dublin, less commonly S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis; in lambs, S. abortus ovis; in foals
  8. Salmonella
    Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease caused by microbes of the genus Salmonella, occurring mainly with gastrointestinal tract lesions, less often in the form of generalized forms. Clinical Diagnostics The incubation period for the alimentary route of infection is 12-24 hours, for contact - 3-7 days. Gastrointestinal form. Gastritis, enteritis, gastroenteritis. The onset is acute. Fever, pain in
  9. Salmonellosis
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  11. Salmonellosis of ostriches
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  12. Salmonellosis
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  13. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease of humans and animals caused by Salmonella serovars and occurs in children more often in the form of gastrointestinal, less often typhoid-like and septic forms. Etiology. Salmonella are motile gram-negative bacteria that do not have capsules and do not form spores. The main antigens of salmonella are flagella (H), antigens of the cell wall (O) and
  14. Salmonella
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  15. Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis is an infectious disease of bee families, accompanied by the death of adult bees. Etiology. Pathogen - Sal. typhi murium, Sal. cholerae suis, etc. It is gram-negative, motile (except Sal. Pullorum gallinarum), spore and capsules not forming a stick. Optional aerob, size 2-4 x 0.3-0.5 microns. It is well stained with all aniline dyes. Epizootology. Disease
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