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Anthrax (anthrax) is an extremely acute disease of all types of agricultural and wild animals, as well as humans, characterized by sepsis, intoxication and education in areas of the body of different size of carbuncles, in most cases it ends in death.

In recent years, anthrax has been recorded as isolated cases, the last case of this disease was registered in the Republic of Belarus in 1999.

Economic damage consists of a high mortality rate of sick animals (up to 90% -100%). Quarantine measures include the destruction of milk, the burning of corpses and manure, etc. Due to the susceptibility to the disease of people, its elimination and prevention is of great social importance.

Etiology. The causative agent of the disease (Bac. Anthracis) is a fixed, gram-positive, spore-forming rod, 3-10 microns long, 1-1.5 microns wide. In the body, the pathogen forms a capsule, and in the environment with the access of oxygen and a temperature of 12-42o - spores, which persist in the soil for up to 80 years.

Epizootological data. The most susceptible to anthrax are considered to be domestic animals - cattle, sheep, buffalo, horses, donkeys, deer and camels. Pigs are less susceptible, poultry are even less susceptible (only experimentally). Man is also susceptible to anthrax.

Sources of the causative agent of infection are sick animals. Factors of its transmission are animal carcasses contaminated by this pathogen, soil, feed, water, manure, bedding, animal care products, raw materials and animal products. Carriers of the pathogen can be carnivores, birds, blood-sucking insects.

Anthrax refers to a soil infection. Infection occurs more often in pastures in an alimentary way. Anthrax is recorded most often in the summer, less often in winter when animals eat an infected feed. The stationarity of the disease is noted.

Currently, anthrax occurs in the form of sporadic cases, mortality up to 100%.

Pathogenesis. The pathogen, once in the body, multiplies rapidly, penetrating the lymphatic vessels and blood. Its reproduction in the affected tissues and in the focus of inflammation is accompanied by the accumulation of toxic substances. Under their action, the endothelium of the blood vessels is damaged, their permeability increases, congestion, edema, multiple hemorrhages, intoxication, nervous phenomena and the death of the animal occur.

The course and symptoms of the disease. The incubation period ranges from several hours to 6-8 days, an average of 2-3 days. The disease course is fulminant, acute, subacute, and sometimes, very rarely, chronic (in pigs). The main forms of the disease are: septic, carbuncular, abortive, intestinal, pulmonary and anginal (in pigs).

With lightning in cattle, fever, increased pulse and respiration, scar meteorism, constipation or diarrhea, symptoms of CNS damage are noted. Bloody foam is released from the nasal and oral cavities, and blood from the rectum is dark. The blood impurities contain urine.
The animal dies suddenly or within 1-2 hours, and sometimes several minutes.

The acute and subacute course is characterized by less pronounced clinical signs, the death of animals occurs in 2-8 days.

Symptoms of anthrax in small ruminants are similar to those in cattle, and colic is noted in horses.

The carbunculosis form is characterized by the formation of inflammatory infiltrates in the head, abdomen and shoulders.

In pigs, anthrax manifests itself locally in the form of angina, often occurs chronically.

Pathological changes. Mortis rigor is absent (or it is mild), the corpse is swollen, frothy bloody liquid is released from natural openings, and sometimes dark-colored blood.

At autopsy, they find: hemorrhagic diathesis and lymphadenitis; septic spleen; non-coagulating dark cherry-colored blood; focal hemorrhagic - necrotic (carbuncle) infiltrates; serous hemorrhagic edema in the subcutaneous tissue; acute scarring of the scar (in the Horn. cattle); hemorrhagic necrotic angina and hemorrhagic necrotic inflammation of the submandibular, pharyngeal and cervical lymph nodes (in pigs).

If you suspect anthrax open the corpse is prohibited, it should be burned.

Diagnostics. They take into account epizootic, clinical, pathoanatomical data, bacteriological and serological (precipitation test) results of studies. In pigs, an allergic diagnostic method is used. For bacteriological research, an ear, cut from the side on which the corpse lies, is sent to the laboratory from all types of animals except pigs. In pigs, the sites of edematous connective tissue and the pharyngeal or submandibular nodes are directed for examination.

Differential diagnosis. Anthrax must be differentiated from emkar, pasteurellosis, bradzot, sheep enterotoxemia, malignant (gas) edema, pyroplasmosis, babesiosis.

Treatment. Hyperimmune serum against anthrax is used: large animals at a dose of 100-200 ml, small animals 50-100 ml, as well as antibiotics.

Immunity. For active immunization, a vaccine from strain 55 is used, representing the capsule-free strain of the anthrax pathogen. It is administered once under the skin or intracutaneously.

Prevention and control measures. When anthrax occurs, the household is quarantined. Sick and suspicious animals are isolated and treated. All other animals are immunized. They replace pasture, rooms are disinfected with a 20% solution of bleach or 10% solution of sodium hydroxide three times with an interval of 1 hour. Other disinfectants are also used as provided by the instruction. Quarantine is removed 15 days after the last case of death, forced slaughter or recovery of the animal.

In stationary and unfavorable locations (where there have been cases of anthrax), prophylactic vaccination of all susceptible animals, except pigs, against anthrax (adult cattle, sheep, goats, horses) is carried out once a year.
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    Anthrax (lat. - Febris carbunculosa; English - Anthrax) is a particularly dangerous, acute septic disease of animals of many species and humans, caused by Bacillus anthracis, characterized by septicemia, damage to the skin, intestines, lungs, lymph nodes and the death of diseased animals (see color inset). Historical background, distribution, degree of danger and damage. Anthrax is known
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