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TETANUS (TETANUS)

Tetanus is an acute wound infectious disease of animals and humans, characterized by damage to the nervous system, reflex excitability and convulsive contraction of the muscles of the body without impaired consciousness.

Etiology. The causative agent of tetanus is widespread in nature, there are many in the soil of gardens and vegetable gardens, in manure. There is evidence that it multiplies in the intestines of animals, with their feces it enters the external environment.

The causative agent of tetanus Clostridium tetanus is a spore-forming microbe, motile, Gram positively colored. Its size is 4-8 microns in length and 0.4-0.6 microns in width. Spores are located at the end, and the microbe looks like a drumstick. Flagella are peritrichous. The causative agent is a strict anaerobic, in the presence of the smallest amount of oxygen does not grow. It produces a very strong neurotropic toxin, which consists of two components of tetadospazmin or neurotoxin and tetanohemolysin. The first component is the main one, it acts on the nervous system and causes tonic contractions of the striated muscles. Tetanohemolysin destroys red blood cells.

The vegetative form of bacteria is unstable to the effects of physico-chemical factors. Disputes, on the contrary, are very persistent. In a humid environment, they can withstand heating to 80 ° C for 4-6 hours, while boiling, they die after 40-50 minutes. In a dry state they withstand 115 ° C for 20 minutes. Spores are completely insensitive to low temperatures; a 1% sublimate of mercuric chloride, a 5% solution of carbolic acid, kill them only after 10-12 hours. They remain in the soil for many years.

Epizootology. The most susceptible to tetanus are dogs, horses, cattle and small cattle, pigs and other animals.

Pathogenesis. Clostridia fall into deep wounds with dead tissue, begin to multiply and secrete a toxin that acts on the peripheral nerves that extend to the centers in the spinal cord and brain.
This action is manifested by a specific form of tonus changes observed in the corresponding muscle groups.

Symptoms The incubation period of the disease lasts from 7 to 20 days, sometimes it can be longer (up to several months). In dogs, tetanus can occur in generalized and localized forms. In the first case, all muscles are involved in the process, in the second - a separate group of them. The localized form of the disease is very difficult to recognize, usually it ends in recovery.

With the generalized form of tetanus, the gait is difficult, the limbs are apart, the tail is raised, the head and neck are elongated, the skin on the forehead is folded, the eyes are fixed, the jaws are compressed (trismus), as a result of which swallowing is difficult or impossible. Noise and light increase seizures and seizures. Death occurs from asphyxiation or exhaustion.

Pathological changes in tetanus are uncharacteristic. Pulmonary edema, hyperemia, and cerebral hemorrhages are sometimes noted.

Diagnosis. They put it on the basis of the symptoms of the disease. Tetanus is characterized by the presence of tonic muscle spasms, undisturbed consciousness, and normal temperature.

Treatment. Wounds are treated with antiseptics, remove dead tissue and aerate. It is recommended that dogs be given tetanus toxoid serum for the first day 10,000–40,000 units, and then 3000–5,000 units daily for 7–9 days. A solution of glucose and multivitamins are subcutaneously administered.

Prevention Wounds should be well treated, remove all crushed and dead tissue from them. Animals suspected of being infected with tetanus are given tetanus toxoid and antibiotics, and immediately subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of tetanus toxoid. After a month, re-vaccinated in the same dose.
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TETANUS (TETANUS)

  1. TETANUS
    Tetanus [Greek - Tetanus (curing); English - Lockjaw] - an acute, non-contagious wound toxicoinfectious disease of mammals of animals, birds and humans, characterized by increased reflex excitability, convulsive tonic convulsions of the muscles of the body under the influence of the toxin of the pathogen (see color insert). Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage.
  2. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an acute infectious disease caused by the action of the toxin secreted by the bacillus of Nicolaera (Clostridium tetani), a microorganism that can remain viable for many years while in the ground. This bacillus easily penetrates the human body through a wound, especially if dirt enters the wound. See the article SHOOTS, taking into account that the metaphysical meaning of tetanus
  3. TETANUS
    Tetanus is an acute wound toxicosis of animals caused by Clostridium tetanus and is characterized by damage to the nervous system, reflex excitability and convulsive muscle contraction without impaired consciousness. The causative agent lives mainly in soil containing manure. There is evidence that pathogenic clostridia, multiplying in the intestines of animals, are excreted into the external environment along with feces.
  4. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an acute toxemia caused by the action of exotoxin (tetanospasmin) produced by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin is produced by the vegetative forms of the microorganism at the place of its penetration into the tissues of the body, and then enters the central nervous system and is fixed there. Etiology. The causative agent of tetanus is an obligate anaerobic, thin gram-positive motile
  5. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by tonic skeletal muscle tension and periodic generalized seizures, which is associated with damage to the motor structures of the central nervous system by the toxin of the pathogen. The causative agent of tetanus has the ability to produce the strongest exotoxin, which is associated with clinical manifestations
  6. Tetanus
    ETIOL. Clostridium tetani. AF: exotoxin (tetanospazmin - neurotoxin and tetanohemolysin). IST: soil, feces herbivores. alive. and people. Thief: wounds, burns, frostbite, childbirth, abortion. PZ required conv. - lack of O2. Input gate - 1) tetanospazmin - dvig. fiber perip. nerves + hematogenous - NS - paralysis standing up. neur. polysynaptic refl arc - violated. percent braking - convulsions. 2)
  7. Tetanus
    Scope of examination 1. Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by toxic damage to the nervous system, manifested by tonic convulsions. The causative agent of the disease is the anaerobic spore-forming bacillus of Clostridium tetani. 2. Entrance gates are wounds or other injuries to the skin and mucous membranes, including burns, frostbite, abrasions, criminal abortions,
  8. Tetanus
    ETIOL. Clostridium tetani. AF: exotoxin (tetanospazmin - neurotoxin and tetanohemolysin). IST: soil, feces herbivores. alive. and people. Thief: wounds, burns, frostbite, childbirth, abortion. PZ required conv. - lack of O2. Input gate - 1) tetanospazmin - dvig. fiber perip. nerves + hematogenous - NS - paralysis standing up. neur. polysynaptic refl arc - violated. percent braking - convulsions. 2)
  9. Tetanus
    Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the neurotropic toxin of anaerobic tetanus bacillus, characterized by attacks of tonic seizures. In newborns, the infection penetrates through the umbilical wound, in older children through any wound, especially a contaminated one. Extremely dangerous contaminated ground punctured and lacerated wounds with crushed tissues, due to the danger of anaerobic
  10. TETANUS
    Harry H. Beaty Definition. Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by endotoxin produced by bacteria entering the wound (Clostridium tetani). Generalized increase in rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles are typical for it. Etiology. Tetanus bacillus is strictly anaerobic gram-positive motile
  11. TETANUS
    An acute wound infectious disease characterized by increased reflex excitability, tonic convulsive contractions of all or certain muscle groups of the body under the influence of CI toxin. tetani, formed at the site of pathogen entry into the body. All types of mammals are susceptible to tetanus, mostly horses, then sheep, goats, cattle, and
  12. Tetanus
    Tetanus
  13. tetanus (pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment)
    Tetanus (tetanus) is an acute infectious disease caused by exposure to tetanus bacillus exotoxin with a predominant damage to the nervous system, characterized by tonic and convulsive contractions of striated muscles. Etiology: Clostridium tetani - in the external environment exists in the form of extremely stable spores, which with favorable anaerobic
  14. Infections of the external integument
    Tetanus is an acute disease with symptoms of central nervous system intoxication, tonic and clonic muscle cramps. Epidemiology. Pathogen - tetanus bacillus, strict anaerobic; the vegetative form produces the strongest exotoxin. Outside the body, it forms spores that are resistant to physical and chemical factors: they remain in the soil for up to 10 years, only die when boiled
  15. Crib. Infectious diseases, 2010
    Typhoid fever. Paratyphoid A and B. cholera. Amoebiasis. Yersiniosis. Ascaridosis. Trichinosis. Typhus fever, Brill-Zinsser batch. Echinococcosis. Enterobiosis. Q fever. Lime borreliosis. Leptospirosis. Tularemia. Anthrax. Meningococcal infection. Plague. Tetanus. Rabies. Ornithosis. Legionellosis. Erysipelas. Influenza. Food.
  16. Preventive planning
    Owners should not be deceived by the idea that horses will live their lives without any illnesses. It can be useful to draw up a disease prevention plan. Mark for yourself all the requirements that need to be met, what has already been done and what else needs to be done. Our memory is unreliable; Planning helps not to miss the important and do everything according to the rules. An example of such planning is a program.
  17. Rabies.
    Training target: using the algorithm, determine the clinical stage of rabies, conduct a differential diagnosis; prescribe treatment measures for emergency care and treatment at the hospital stage. Task for self-study. Using the textbook, Infectious Diseases Manual, lecture material and a list of recommended literature for acquiring the necessary basic
  18. Pravets
    Pravets (Tetanus, stovbnyak) is a non-contagious gostra of toxic toxicity of rare species of creatures, which is characterized by a reflective reflexive and trivial skeletal skeletal joints. On Pravets mortally ill people. Istorichna dovidka. Klіnіchna picture of righteousness in the people of the Bula is described more by Hippocrates in the fourth century. BC e. Prote tilki in 1884 p. Nikolaiєru went into Viklikati
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